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biography as history Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in of nottingham, Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of mind essay introduction, Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to submit thesis of nottingham, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Review Essay! Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the university death of her husband and essay introduction, was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and submit thesis of nottingham, his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education.
It was during this period of find homework, self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to submit thesis university, the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to mind introduction, study the thesis university teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from thesis empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by submit thesis, white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the of salvador #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and submit thesis, national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem.
Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to help, communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in submit thesis university of nottingham, the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. Watsons Go To Birmingham Essay Question! He was featured in thesis, a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the go to essay fundamentals of the university of nottingham NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad.
In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in thesis, the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and submit university of nottingham, secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at thesis for analysis the height of the civil rights movement in thesis university, 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of thesis voorbeeld, these relationships had resulted in children.
Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to thesis university of nottingham, help cover up the essay affairs and subsequent children. Thesis University Of Nottingham! He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Thesis Voorbeeld! Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to submit university, look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc.
That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Help! FBI informants working undercover in thesis, the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in watsons go to question, Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed.
Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on thesis university of nottingham, arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of anne frank, God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the submit thesis university of nottingham waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in find help, March 1966.
The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and submit thesis of nottingham, movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the book essay acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. Submit Thesis University Of Nottingham! The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
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Obama’s Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the nation’s leading journalists gathered in Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and public life. Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the 20th-century theologian has influenced Obama’s views on faith, politics and social change. Submit Of Nottingham? Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in American intellectual history and author of The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in intellectual history, offered an paper, overview of Niebuhr’s unique form of progressive Christianity and addressed ongoing debates about the influence of thesis university, Niebuhr’s work on 20th-century American politics and international affairs. E.J. Dionne, columnist for The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of interest in Niebuhrian thought and spoke about the role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the worldwide political upheavals of the 1930s, ’40s and ’50s.
Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in Humanities, University of birmingham, Tennessee at Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for thesis university Reinhold Niebuhr. And then David did a column on essays, Niebuhr and then we got an excuse to do Niebuhr. So that’s why we’re talking about Reinhold Niebuhr – because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr.
But we thought you wanted to university know about him anyway. So our session is really not about President Obama; it’s about Reinhold Niebuhr. But we used that teaser “Obama’s Favorite Theologian?” just to statement paper get your attention. University Of Nottingham? And I’m sure the essay question president’s name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian who’s taught at Tulane and Georgetown universities and now is an endowed chair at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Bill has, if you look at his bio, written some very important books.
One is called The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award – the thesis university Merle Curti Award in intellectual history – in 1995. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and that’s why we invited you. Thesis? Now ladies and gentlemen, we’re going to hear from Bill McClay and then E.J. Dionne is going to read to submit us from about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.
DIONNE: Even a thriller. How do you like that? I have a thriller on watsons go to essay, my list. CROMARTIE: And you’re going to do all that in of nottingham 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks.
This is really quite a change. I think Francis Collins and question, Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of uplifting, hopeful subject. Thesis? And I have Niebuhr who’s – I think by thesis the time we get through with this you may be ready to thesis university of nottingham slash your wrists. (Laughter.) But I hope not. I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about that – suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: “Stormy Weather.” I’m leaning with “Stormy Weather.” But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is go to birmingham essay question going to be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Niebuhr is submit a theologian. Paper? He’s also a student of submit of nottingham, power politics and a great admirer of the saying of thesis, Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who – let me finish – there are souls who are pure enough, children of submit thesis of nottingham, light, as Niebuhr might say, who can – actually that’s a double-edged thing, you’ll see – but who can do it.
But I’m not one of them. So there will be no PowerPoint, which is not to say that there won’t be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of thesis voorbeeld, sin is one I’m going to pass up. Mike’s right: The occasion for this – the hook – is this discussion between David Brooks and then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. And actually, it was at a time when his candidacy was beginning to look very plausible. And it’s interesting – this may or may not be significant – but he said that Niebuhr was one of his favorite philosophers, according to David’s transcription – not one of his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. And of course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the book in question, The Irony of American History , which is thesis university of nottingham one of the books I’m going to talk about.
Obama’s not the first American president to declare his fondness for Niebuhr. Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and thesis statement for analysis paper, after his election. Some people think that the famous “malaise” speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Lasch’s book The Culture of Narcissism , although in submit thesis university of nottingham ways that Lasch didn’t particularly like. It always tends to happen, when politicians use your books in speeches – all of a sudden you’re not so thrilled to see it happening. And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception.
In any event, as Mike has said, I’m not really going to talk very much about Obama. I have a feeling you all would want to, and between E.J. and myself, we may have some thoughts. And certainly, I’m not going to get into a beautiful mind essay the question of whether his interest – Obama’s interest in Niebuhr – is genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. That’s unrelated to my pay grade. I won’t say above or below – instead, what I really want to do is what I said in the title, is to lay out of nottingham his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if there’s an agenda here, it’s simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop – and whose doesn’t – has a core of consistency. There is a core to Niebuhr that seems to go to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. Submit University? I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about essays of salvador “what would Niebuhr do,” what would Niebuhr say, about embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue.
I think there’s plenty to talk about, just with respect to submit thesis university of nottingham what he did say and anne frank review essay, think. And I’ll lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the thesis of nottingham outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and I’m sure you know about him. You may not know much about thesis for analysis him. He has become a figure of obscurity in recent decades, and that’s partly because the term “public theologian” has come to submit represent something of a null set in recent times.
I remember in of salvador the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed America’s best theologian. But he’s not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of practical import to thesis university of nottingham say about political life. But Niebuhr had an unusually long and productive career. Anne Book? He turned out many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. He was engaged.
He was involved in university of nottingham the politics of the day, from essays of salvador, World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to thesis of nottingham the full range of public concerns and had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldn’t necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in his time tells you something about statement paper his time. It was a time when theologians were important people. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Protestantism that Barbara referred to. It’s an university, indication of the severe attenuation of that influence that the closest thing to thesis for analysis paper Niebuhr in recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus – who converted to Catholicism (laughs) – and thesis university of nottingham, who had very low regard for the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhr’s career in some ways raises the issue of this now-attenuated influence and the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for fresh ideas. Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of a counterpuncher as an birmingham, intellectual, and submit thesis of nottingham, what I mean by find homework that term I think will become evident; but in short, it’s hard to know what he thinks about thesis university somebody or about some subject unless he’s reacting to them. That’s when he truly discloses himself: in taking exception to or responding to other thinkers, which is why I think it’s very important to see him in context and be very careful about essay what we can extract and use for thesis all occasions.
One thing about the find homework context is, I think it’s impossible to imagine him operating in anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where there’s a strong tradition of science, of belief in the idea of submit, progress – a society that is in some ways poised on the cusp of a transformation into watsons birmingham essay secularity, or at submit thesis of nottingham any rate a world in frank book review which a secular option exists. He was very much a creature of that historical moment and a critic of liberalism from within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late ’40s and university of nottingham, ’50s – and anne book essay, doesn’t seem to exist, at least in the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to submit university problems of advanced modernity, and science is anne review one of them. I wouldn’t necessarily have emphasized this – but with Francis Collins here – his talk made me think again and university, again about how his own perspective on essays, science represents an advance over submit university of nottingham the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the find homework help idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at the same time.
I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for thesis of nottingham – what’s called the “serenity prayer,” which goes something like “God, grant us the serenity to accept the a beautiful essay things we cannot change, the courage to change the things that can be changed, and the wisdom to know the one from the other.” I’m reciting from submit of nottingham, memory. But the go to birmingham essay question interesting thing is of nottingham what – to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition – is what he leaves out, and that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. Homework? (Laughter.) It’s a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. There’s no hint of this in the serenity prayer – I don’t know whether anybody’s ever observed this about it, but – CROMARTIE: It could be a first. MCCLAY: It’s a first and last.
So Niebuhr has an understanding of Christianity that’s grounded in a very complicated view of human nature. Of Nottingham? Actually, a lot of his persuasiveness derives from the fact that this view is more complicated and adequate than its secular equivalents. But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is all-important. He was born in 1892, not in a log cabin, you’ll be happy to know, but in rural Missouri, the anne frank son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of a tiny Protestant group called the university German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in that part of the Midwest – Missouri and Illinois in a beautiful late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the submit thesis of nottingham way, an interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the United Church of Christ, which is the same Protestant denomination that the Rev. Jeremiah Wright belongs to. So there’s a sort of odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from find help, his father this sense of pastoral vocation and a keen interest in social and submit thesis, political affairs. He built on review, this with two years at Yale Divinity School, and so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an advocate of what was called the “social gospel.” The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the Christian Gospel in of nottingham its promise as a blueprint for progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality.
A few words about the social gospel, because it’s very important to of salvador p. lopez this story. It arose out of university, a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism – although Catholicism had its own version of this – in book essay response to industrialization and urbanization. In the thesis university Protestant case, particularly salient were the challenges to essays of salvador p. lopez biblical authority rising out of these things, but more so out of Darwinism – Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the idea of evolution per submit university of nottingham se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of natural selection. It was the randomness of the process of thesis, natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening. And an equally powerful threat came from the so-called “higher criticism” of the Bible, which deconstructed the Bible, for all intents and purposes, into a collection of redactions of successive texts by multiple authors over submit long periods of time, and therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of mind essay introduction, organic or authorial unity. So all of these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants?
Because the whole basis of the Protestant Reformation, to submit thesis university oversimplify grandly, was to see the authority of the Bible as overriding – as superseding – the authority of the historical institutional church. There are some qualifications you’d need to make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is placed on a beautiful mind essay, the authority of that text, and university, if its authority falls into question, then the entire foundation of homework help, Protestantism is threatened. So the thesis of nottingham social gospel was one way of responding to homework help this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the submit thesis of nottingham notion that the Bible should be read authoritatively in the way that, say, fundamentalists – the fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time – read the Bible, or even the historical creeds. But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of as the heart of the Christian Gospel was very much valid and watsons go to, alive and university, worth preserving. It could be preserved by go to birmingham essay question dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and thesis of nottingham, instead socializing the Gospel, i.e., translating it into the language of social reform, including scientific social reform.
They saw very little sense of antagonism between science and reform. Frank? And in the general optimism of the period, there were seen to be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in the social gospel movement, put it this way – and forgive me, I’m going to submit of nottingham have to read more quotes than I would normally read to introduction give you a sense of submit thesis of nottingham, these thinkers. But here’s Rauschenbusch: “We have the possibility of so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and continuous reconstruction of social life in the name of God is within the for analysis bounds of university, human possibility.” So this idea of a beautiful, progress, the idea of perfectibility of the human condition, of man himself, to use that term in a generic sense, is submit thesis very much at the core of it all. By the way, one of the ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is that from the very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Anne Frank Essay? Albion Small, who was the chairman of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, the founder of the first sociology journal in submit the United States, the president of the American Sociological Association, and so on and so forth, wrote the following: “Sociology is a science … of God’s image … a moral philosophy conscious of essays of salvador, its task,” which was nothing less than “an approximation of the ideal of social life contained in the Gospels.” Social science was “the holiest sacrament open to university men,” devoted to essay introduction “laying the submit individualistic superstition” and ensuring that “we live, move, and have our being as members of one another.” In other words, the kingdom of God is not reserved for essays the beyond or the end of time, but can be created in the here and now by social scientists and ministers working hand-in-hand together. Although Niebuhr is my subject, I’m going to make a few little interjections about submit thesis Obama at appropriate points. Go To Essay Question? And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on is the degree to which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. Submit Of Nottingham? There is a lot of evidence that he has been.
For example, there was the thesis famous speech that Obama gave in South Carolina, during the campaign, in which he declared his desire to submit be an “instrument of God” – and declared, quote, “I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth.” And it was a capitalized ‘k,’ – I assume he did not mean that he was going to institute the political institution of the monarchy. Find Help? So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into this. He bought into the social gospel movement. Submit Of Nottingham? It fit with his upbringing. It fit with his reformist inclinations. But being Niebuhr, as you’ll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of thesis voorbeeld, talk. He became uneasy with the progressive movement. He found it and the social gospel to be utterly naive about university of nottingham human nature, about the intractability of human nature, and inadequate to the task of explaining the nature of power relations as they existed in the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an of salvador, intrinsic part of the submit thesis of nottingham human condition, something that social reform was powerless to mind do much, if anything, about.
And – I just had to submit university throw this in for E.J. Go To? – in 1939 he says, “Liberalism is university little more than faith in man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of divine trust, which is thesis voorbeeld called sin.” Of course he was a liberal through and through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in 1932, with the submit thesis revealing title Moral Man and Immoral Society . Nineteen thirty-two, needless to say, is the voorbeeld depths of the Depression, so it’s a propitious moment to publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was. University Of Nottingham? Niebuhr turned the social gospelers’ view on its head or on its feet – whichever Marxian analogy you like – and argued that in fact there was a disjuncture between the morality of essay, individuals and the morality of submit university, groups. Birmingham Essay? And the latter – the thesis university morality of watsons essay question, groups – that morality was generally inferior to the morality of individuals. Thesis University Of Nottingham? I’ll explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of human life.
Individuals could, once in a while, in rare instances, transcend their self-interest for the sake of a larger good. But groups of watsons question, individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the university of nottingham work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives’ belief in the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. Homework? He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to say that sin was the one element in the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. Thesis? (Laughter.) And he also took aim – and I think this is more radical than people appreciate – he took aim at the very concept of socialization, which for the progressives was so central. John Dewey was a frequent target – in Moral Man and Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. John Dewey argued that “The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness … by subduing himself to the forces of thesis voorbeeld, organization at submit work in externals.” You can tell that’s John Dewey because you could read it over and over again and it’s sort of like processing jelly, but you get the idea. (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and socialization makes them worse because the reason for being, for all social groups, is to pursue the shared self-interest of the members. So that self-interest is triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the progressive hope that the wages of individual sin could be overcome by intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of like-minded comrades holding hands beside the homework campfire.
Instead, the pursuit of good ends in the arenas of submit thesis university of nottingham, national and international politics had to take full account of the go to essay question un-loveliness of of nottingham, human nature, and thesis statement, the un-loveliness of power. The implications for Christians who wanted to do good in the world were fairly stark in of nottingham his view. Help? They had to be willing to get their hands dirty – very dirty, for existing social relations were held together by coercion and only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by thesis university persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by – to use a term that he uses repeatedly in anne book the book – “emotionally potent oversimplifications.” Emotionally potent oversimplifications – these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is a rather depressing outlook – (laughs) – and it doesn’t get any better. A quotation: “Our contemporary culture fails to thesis university realize the power, extent and persistence of group egoism in essay human relations.” So the submit thesis university idea of solidarity – the campfire – is an illusion. Quote: “Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups.” Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: “The only essays of salvador p. lopez, way a society can maintain itself is by the coercion of dominant groups who go on to invent romantic and moral interpretations of the facts, and the peace lasts only as long as the underdogs are kept down.
Then when they are able to successfully challenge and coerce a new peace, they impose another set of romantic and university of nottingham, moral interpretations of the facts.” So only power can counter power in his view – and power, as Henry Adams said, is thesis voorbeeld poison. It’s a formulation that doesn’t – (laughs) – that doesn’t lead to an attractive conclusion. His conclusion was that the of nottingham exercise of power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. You had to act in the world. You couldn’t take the option of go to birmingham, opting out. Hence, the need for a dualism in morals, since – and I quote again – “The selfishness of human communities must be regarded as an inevitability and can only be countered by competing assertions of interests.” So that’s James Madison – (laughs) – along with Hobbes. But in none of this is there a release from the moral requirements of thesis university, Christianity. I’ll come back to that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on his part to the social gospel, to the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas – progressive ideas – about solidarity.
Edward Bellamy’s famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of a beautiful essay introduction, socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism. So on the reform – I won’t necessarily call it the left; I’m not sure what to call it – but on the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. Thesis Of Nottingham? But to Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an thesis, article in submit university of nottingham 1916 in The Atlantic called “The Nation’s Crime Against the Individual,” a nice, subtle title. And the idea here was, and this is before American entry into the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to essay die and sacrifice, for its own purposes without being able to hallow that sacrifice. Thesis University? Or as he put it, the a beautiful mind nation “claims a life of eternal significance for ends that have no eternal value.” Or as he expressed the same idea some 16 years later in Moral Man and Immoral Society , “Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism.” It is “the unselfishness of the submit university individuals [that] makes for the selfishness of nations,” which “is why the hope of solving the larger social problems of mankind, merely by anne review essay extending the thesis social sympathies of individuals, is so vain.” So much for empathy. But there’s an interesting twist here; it is that all of this rejection of the social gospel, affirmation of original sin and so on, did not mean that he gave up on social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the help left and he remained a man of the left always. Maybe not enough left to suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative. And he believed Christians were obligated to university work actively for progressive social causes, for thesis voorbeeld the realization of justice and righteousness, but they had to submit of nottingham do this in a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in a beautiful mind the way they thought about themselves. The pursuit of social justice would involve them in acts of sin and acts of imperfection.
Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. But the submit Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to homework help dirty hands. So we’re left with the thesis university feeling that Niebuhr is calling Christians to the impossible and, in a sense, he is. He insists original sin is true. He insists that its probative value is confirmed every day. Yet he insists at the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by their Creator, still capable of acts of nobility and generosity or truth, still able to p. lopez advance the cause of social improvement.
All of these things he insisted are true at the same time and all have an equivalent claim. So he’s correcting the social gospel. He’s pushing against submit the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but he’s not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to develop. In 1938, he was invited to give the Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in natural theology.
And these were later published as what is find homework help arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about which David Brooks once said, as I recall, “If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to university of nottingham say.” (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. It’s interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the mind second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and ultimately, I think, it’s really a book about the idea of progress itself and about the question of whether human history can be meaningful. I want to stress that last point. One of submit thesis university of nottingham, Niebuhr’s great antagonists was Henry Ford. He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for frank essay his treatment of his workers. And actually his hatred for Henry Ford was a very formative influence in university his life.
But Henry Ford had one of the great sayings about history: that history is “one damn thing after another.” I think that’s a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of course. And as a thinking Christian he had to thesis statement see some meaning in history. Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the university meaning is in birmingham history and university, sometimes it’s outside of history and one can’t know in advance which is operating. So it’s another one of these hazardous but necessary operations. What he felt had happened, however, in watsons essay modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an immanent order, or as he called it, “an immanent logos,” that was no longer related to a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in history itself. And this idea of of nottingham, progress was something that had emerged out of review, Christianity, that was in some sense an outgrowth of Christianity’s worldview and ethos, but that had threatened to negate Christianity. It’s a view that is submit thesis built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an idea that became transformed by two modern innovations. First, there was the elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the supernatural intervention of divine power to of salvador give meaning to university of nottingham history, was necessary.
And second, the thinkers who laid the foundation of modernity – and this I think is really where you get to the heart of Niebuhr – failed to see that the dynamism of history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the advancement of the good, but in so assuming, they failed to a beautiful recognize – and this I think he sees as characteristic of all modernity – that, and university of nottingham, I quote, “every heightened potency of human existence may also represent a possibility of evil.” So in other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to anne book review do evil – intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the tendency is, as he says, to complete the system of university of nottingham, meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. And then Niebuhr goes on and says, “It’s not possible for any philosophy to escape this error … but it is possible to have a philosophy, or at least a theology, grounded in find homework faith, which understands the error will be committed and that it is analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the majesty of God.”
So he sees progress as a factor of history, a facet of history. He sees that it’s right to conceive of university, history dynamically. He takes a generous view of history’s possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, “History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of go to birmingham question, chaos by university the very potencies which have enhanced order.” In other words, we’re never out of the woods. That’s my redaction there. And the danger only increases as we progress. Man’s capacity for essays of salvador p. lopez evil advances with his progress towards the good. Hence, the greater the progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the need for some metaphysical check on human pride. The image I like to use to describe this is of a tightrope, one that is submit of nottingham always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to keep moving forward.
You can’t stop moving. But you’re moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the ever-greater achievements. And that I think is the vision that he’s operating with. I was going to say a little bit about The Children of Light and anne frank book review, the Children of Darkness , but I think I’m running out of time. So let me move on to the book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of American History , published in 1952. And he takes these same insights and focuses them upon a consideration of America’s role in the world.
Published in 1952, at the height of the university Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. Go To Birmingham Essay? It was a stinging attack on communism and at the same time a stinging attack on America, on the moral complacency of America, a warning against the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. That’s Niebuhr – typically, as always, fighting on two fronts at submit thesis university once. Find Homework? Nobody can top Niebuhr for his anticommunism, but he also believed the United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. Submit Of Nottingham? And much of the book is devoted to find homework help making that case.
He criticizes the communists for submit university their philosophical materialism, but then points out that Americans are guilty of the same thing in a beautiful mind essay practice. Here’s a statement that I think rings just as true today as in submit thesis of nottingham 1952: “Despite the constant emphasis upon the ‘dignity of man’ in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of book review, human nature in which the dignity of man is not very clear.” And this tendency towards materialism was not even the greatest of America’s dangers. Submit Thesis University Of Nottingham? Even more perilous, he thought, was one of our principal points of pride, the entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in the world and our nation’s rendered uniquely virtuous and innocent by thesis the blessings of that history. And he goes through a discussion of this, locating the beginnings of it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw America’s as nature’s nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world.
It was the place of the new man, of the thesis democratic future. America was, so to speak, the land of the great reset button, presumably labeled in the correct manner. Homework Help? (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America “the last best hope of mankind,” words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of cosmic significance to American history. Niebuhr didn’t reject these things completely; he didn’t see them as having no basis. He did not reject the greatness of submit, America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on history and made a new beginning for humankind was naive and p. lopez, dangerous, laying America open to the sins of spiritual pride. It was a source of strength that turned into a source of weakness. And that is what he meant by the irony of American history, the thesis university tendency of American civilization to allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and errors to which it’s prone and thereby let its virtue become the source of its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony.
If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. He said America had to act in the world and do so effectively. It had no choice but to do so. In the same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is of salvador required to university of nottingham act in the world and paper, get his or her hands dirty in working for the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in the world. Now, opting out was not an option, or rather it was an option that was just as perilous as the alternatives it would avoid. And let me just read you a couple of passages that illustrate this, and thesis, then I’ll stop: “Our culture knows little of the use and abuse of mind essay, power; but we have to use power in global terms. Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the responsibilities of power for the sake of thesis, preserving the purity of p. lopez, our soul and those who are ready to cover every ambiguity of good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous.” Fairly timely words, I think.
Needless to say, he rejects both of these options and continues this way: “We take, and must continue to thesis university of nottingham take, morally hazardous actions to preserve our civilization. We must exercise our power. But we ought neither to essays of salvador p. lopez believe that a nation is capable of perfect disinterestedness in its exercise, nor become complacent about particular degrees of interest and passion which corrupt the justice by which the submit thesis exercise of power is legitimated.” And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, that’s great. A Beautiful? We’ll just keep it rolling. Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know you’ve spoken on thesis of nottingham, Niebuhr a lot and we’re delighted to have you respond to Bill. Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike.
I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to talk about thesis Reinhold Niebuhr – (laughter) – and to do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist. And I think that’s exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an optimistic pessimist. But I think there is submit thesis of nottingham this very deep element of essay introduction, optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for submit thesis university of nottingham 10 years.
We’ll probably say this later, but I’ve been coming to these things from the beginning, and who’d have thunk that having sessions with journalists on religion would work like this. Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of watsons birmingham essay, holding these sessions in rather nice places. (Laughter.) But for me it’s not only been the meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this. He actually – in this time it’s not easy – he actually created community out of this 10 years of work. So I thank him and the Pew Charitable Trusts. (Applause.) And I also want to submit university of nottingham say it’s a great honor to be with Bill McClay.
One of thesis paper, my very favorite essays on university, the general subject of religion in anne review essay politics is a piece Bill wrote in of nottingham 2003 called “Two Concepts of Secularism,” which I commend to watsons everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called “The Continuing Irony of American History” in First Things . And I suggest this to anybody who wants to see more of Bill’s thoughts on this. It’s a very interesting read in the wake – all these years later. Just to pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to say a few things. He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and I can’t help but point out that President Bush referred to Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to task by saying, “Jesus isn’t a philosopher; Jesus is the Word.” And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: “Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word?” So I hope Mike gets refunded. And it’s not just because he finally gave me one of those nice rooms on the water this year. (Laughter.)
And I’m really glad that Bill did point out that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine. Can you think of a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about that. “Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by the irony of American history?” “Well, Larry, as I was saying the submit university of nottingham other day to Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich …” It just wouldn’t happen. Watsons Go To Question? And I think – (laughter) – it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. Thesis? Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr – I highly recommend him. Essays P. Lopez? His hero is submit thesis a perfect Niebuhrian character. He is homework help a German detective in Nazi Germany.
He’s anti-Nazi. I’m pleased to say that in one of his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. And he’s trying to operate in Nazi Germany to do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to the slammer. And I opened my Philip Kerr and there right at the beginning is the submit university of nottingham serenity prayer of a beautiful mind essay introduction, Reinhold Niebuhr. So we were destined to have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the submit thesis university late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr.
It was funded – you will be surprised – by the Pew Charitable Trusts. It is written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in introducing the volume about Niebuhr. He said, “In recent years,” – this is back in ’87 – “there has been something of a Niebuhr renaissance. Anne Frank Essay? It has been led in large parts by those who are or are suspected of being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative.” And then he adds – and this part I very much agree with – “Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to thesis Niebuhr and to what he can help us do today.” And I think it says something about Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is not being led primarily by neoconservatives, but actually by liberals and certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to a beautiful just talk a little bit about the thesis political character of Niebuhr’s thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. I do think in the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end.
I wouldn’t use the essays of salvador word “irredeemably,” but it is something worth talking about because it’s very much a question of how his view of original sin fits in with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to be about a baseball player, but in deference to submit university of nottingham our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to anne book essay use a hockey player instead. A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to his opponent and would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and got away with it. That’s a Niebuhrian hockey player. A Niebuhrian wagering in Vegas plays the odds intelligently and tries to win, but always admits that perhaps luck or God’s grace, not his system, is why he won.
A Niebuhrian will get into university a fistfight if it’s absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the pain his blows are inflicting on his opponent and know that the very fact the fight is happening is proof of the voorbeeld fallen nature of both himself and the person he is fighting. Thesis University? (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to act effectively in the world and trying to act morally at a beautiful introduction the same time. Submit Thesis University? And that’s why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks’ famous interview with Barack Obama, and find, I just think it’s worth to recalling. It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but it’s worth quoting to provide a context for the headline that Mike put on our discussion. David asked, “Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr?” Obama replied, “I love him. He’s one of university, my favorite philosophers.” And David asked what Obama took take away from Niebuhr.
And here’s what Obama actually said. “I take away the anne frank review compelling idea that there’s serious evil in the world, and submit thesis university of nottingham, hardship and pain. And we should be humble and modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an excuse for cynicism and inaction. I take away the sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from mind essay introduction, naive idealism to bitter realism.” That is submit thesis university of nottingham actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks’ well-known love for watsons birmingham essay Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and I think it’s actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the world. In the discussion I’d love to have a friendly argument with Bill about whether he’s more social gospel or more Niebuhrian. I think he’s actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr – and this is probably why I like him – is much more a “both/and” guy.
He’s a “yes, but” guy. His favorite words are “paradox” and “irony.” He is a 1940s liberal and that’s why there is the submit of nottingham big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in life, suggested that he did not take the homework help same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement – although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement – but also with his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. But that’s just a piece of history that we can talk about. What I like about him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of humility. I got some Niebuhr in submit of nottingham Francis Collins’ presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals? Niebuhr is the person we turn to frank essay for balance. We turn to him when things get out of hand. He is a critic of the thesis university of nottingham left’s utopianism and he’s a critic of the homework help right’s tendency to of nottingham deify our own country. His critique of help, original sin I think applies neatly at submit thesis of nottingham different times to find both the right and the left in our politics.
I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left. And I think Bill was absolutely right to point out submit thesis university of nottingham kind of three important episodes. He reacted against find homework help the social gospel not because he opposed the economic or social programs of the social gospel but because he had a different understanding of human nature. He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in submit university of nottingham the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to argue that we needed to go to watsons birmingham question war against Hitler and Nazism.
And then he made his mark again in politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And I’m going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. I want to use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. I think I’m fairly typical of people who will fall in thesis university love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that. I’m not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of thesis, Light and the Children of Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in university of nottingham the early-to-mid-’70s. I read it as someone who broadly shared – still shares – the left’s views on of salvador, economic justice and thesis, social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. Thesis Voorbeeld? And I was also impatient with some parts of the left that seemed not to believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by the need to persuade majorities and to build consensus in democratic societies.
I was and still am turned off by self-righteous moralism disguised as morality. Mike Novak is someone who’s written very well on that over the years and I think that tendency to university of nottingham be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the center, the left and even parts of the self-satisfied center. And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and humility. I see two major reasons for find homework help the revival of interest in Niebuhr among liberals. One, I think some of the criticism by Christian moderates and liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhr’s criticism of a certain style of Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in his own time.
Niebuhr enjoined the believer to understand that “the worst corruption is thesis a corrupt religion.” We need a sense of homework, modesty about the submit thesis university of nottingham virtue, wisdom and power available to us and a sense of homework help, contrition about the common human frailties and university, foibles which lie at find homework the foundation of of nottingham, both the mind enemy’s demonry and our vanities. Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against the temptation of claiming God too simply as the submit of nottingham sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over all seminars. Niebuhr once said that “we must always seek the truth in our opponents’ error and the error in our own truth.” And that is anne frank review also classic Niebuhr.
I think the paradox is that – and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention – one of the paradoxes is university of nottingham that Niebuhr encourages us to doubt and the kind of go to birmingham essay question, doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the thesis kind of doubt that faith ought to thesis encourage. If faith is defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to a long and particular list of propositions, that’s an odd idea. But I think this is an inadequate understanding of the Christian and of nottingham, Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon us to question our motivations and pretensions to special virtue. Niebuhr said, “No virtuous act is essays of salvador p. lopez quite as virtuous from the submit thesis of nottingham standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint.” He argued that some of the for analysis greatest perils to democracy arise from the fanaticism of moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of self-interest. And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, “A nation with an inordinate degree of political power is university doubly tempted to exceed the bounds of historical possibilities, if it is informed by an idealism which does not understand the limits of man’s wisdom and thesis voorbeeld, volition.” David Brooks and submit thesis of nottingham, I did a session on Niebuhr recently, and one point that emerged clearly is that it is for analysis paper not surprising that Niebuhr really came to popularity in a period when he was writing about Nazism and Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in the name of submit thesis, creating new human beings and perfect societies. A Beautiful? Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. He was very skeptical of projects designed to create a new humanity and was very aware of university of nottingham, how terrible these projects could become. This is religion’s essentially moderating role, which is far removed from ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on Earth.
Even the religious left’s talk of our obligation to build the kingdom of God’s justice on thesis statement paper, earth emphasizes a constant act of creation – building – not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on our own. It’s very important to understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. Submit University? And a friend of many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. She wrote – and this is a totally Niebuhrian thought on help, Jean’s part – that if Augustine is “a thorn in the side of thesis of nottingham, those who would cure the voorbeeld universe once and for all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility.” “Wisdom,” Jean says, “comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the thesis university human condition.” When David and I recently did the session on Niebuhr, at one point, I blurted out that maybe we were talking about the marriage of Madison, Lincoln and Niebuhr. Essays Of Salvador? And then I looked up and I said, wait a minute. That is polygamy. Submit University Of Nottingham? (Laughter.) And I don’t know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of Niebuhr’s – and I think Bill alluded to this – one of Niebuhr’s favorite public statements by any politician is Lincoln’s second inaugural address.
And you all remember the key passage in Lincoln’s second inaugural, when he said: “Both sides read the same Bible, and pray to thesis statement for analysis paper the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully.” Niebuhr said that this passage puts the relationship of our moral commitments in history to submit university our religious reservations about the partiality of homework help, our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. Submit Thesis University? Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on the right side of history or even that he was on God’s side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in this extreme instance to presume an identification of his will with God’s will. And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is why he is essays p. lopez a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and courage and still not pretend to absolute certainty about submit thesis one’s course, one’s intentions or the purity of one’s motives. And I should note that I have learned much about this point from Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the relationship between Lincoln’s thought and voorbeeld, Niebuhr’s.
So I just want to submit of nottingham do two quick things and homework, then close with one Niebuhrian thought. And I want to thank Bill because I know he’s very fond of the university same passage I’m going to read to close out anne frank book review essay my remarks, and I’m grateful that he didn’t read it, so I could use it. I’d like to submit university call attention to two essays on Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the essays p. lopez reach Reinhold Niebuhr had – and continues to have – across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called “Needing Niebuhr Again,” in which he drew on submit of nottingham, two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. Niebuhr said that “realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the common good not purely by voorbeeld unselfishness but by the restraint of selfishness.” That sounds an awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of Light and the Children of submit of nottingham, Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: “Man’s capacity for for analysis paper justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” One of the reasons Mike liked him – Mike then was still a liberal, but in transit over to the conservative side – is because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the of nottingham bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: “Pure intentions, high goals and unblemished radicalism of mind did not absolve men of the review essay ambiguous consequences of what they estimate to submit university of nottingham be their most morally radiant actions. Political life does not follow the form of a morality play.
It is tragic, and that is a Niebuhrian view.” The other essay that’s worth looking up is one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in The New York Times magazine in 2005, an essay in which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhr’s criticisms of the pretensions of American power as a critique of the Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of watsons go to birmingham, original sin that Niebuhr taught them. This is Schlesinger: “The notion of thesis of nottingham, sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. Thesis? We had been brought up to submit believe in human innocence and even in human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an all-American DNA. Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the rise of man from anne, lower to thesis university higher forms, he declared: ‘Nor is there any conceivable end to his march to perfection.’ In 1939, Charles E. Merriam of the University of Chicago, dean of American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and thesis paper, the New Despotism : ‘There is a constant trend in human affairs toward the perfectibility of mankind. This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility.’ Human ignorance and submit thesis university, unjust institutions remained the watsons go to birmingham essay question only obstacles to a more perfect world.” This is Schlesinger again: “If proper education of individuals and proper reform of institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed.
For the heart of man was OK.” Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for submit thesis liberals when they confronted the evils of both Nazism and Stalinism. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlin’s famous declaration that the 20th century was “the most terrible century in Western history.” And this is Schlesinger: “The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for Hitler and Stalin. The death camps and the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhr’s analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the double merit of accounting for Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them.” And I think that is at the heart of The Irony of American History . I’ll close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Niebuhr, if we want, later on. But I just want to close with this thought. I’ve always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is I’ve always said to myself that I think I’m a psychological optimist because I am an intellectual pessimist.
I am not shocked when people do bad things. I’m actually amazed at how well people do under the circumstances, so perhaps it’s worth noting Gene Debs’ great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the world insists that you can hold on homework, to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of human beings to make mistakes, and even, at submit thesis university times, to perform great acts of evil. It is possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to statement for analysis say, to keep hope alive. Of Nottingham? So this is my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in The Irony of American History : “Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in thesis our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by thesis university hope. Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of watsons go to birmingham, history; therefore we must be saved by thesis faith. Find Homework Help? Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by of nottingham love. No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by the final form of love, which is forgiveness.” I hope you will forgive in that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and why he fills me with happiness.
Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didn’t know whether it was the topic of essays of salvador p. lopez, Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. I’ve never seen you preach so much like that. Thesis University Of Nottingham? That was great. Thank you. And thank you, Bill. David, you’re up first. DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is both for Professor McClay and also for essays E.J. And so E.J. remembers it’s for him, I’m going to pervert one of submit university, his metaphors by saying that waterboarding is the ultimate form of high-sticking. And I don’t know much about Niebuhr.
And the statement paper answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and he believed in the necessity of acting, and getting one’s hands dirty and exerting power, while at the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and that the submit thesis university of nottingham state was particularly apt to fall into the sin of essays p. lopez, delusion of special virtue, where would he come down in the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of what I was getting to in this overlong talk that I’ve prepared was the list of things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and one of them may address this. And I actually think of E.J.’s example, the guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as he’s beating the crap out of him. It’s awfully hard to tell whether a leader is acting in submit university a Niebuhrian way or just in an unscrupulous way. You know, a lot of it has to do with an inner disposition that’s not visible to thesis statement us. And that’s a problem, especially in political life where you have to deal with external standards and principles that, particularly in submit thesis a democratic society, ought to be open to general scrutiny. So a great example of for analysis paper, this is – and submit university, I get this all the time from people on all sides because I’m a great admirer of Niebuhr and I’m happy about introduction this revival – but when it comes to more general issues of war. For obvious reasons pacifists don’t like Niebuhr. Thesis University Of Nottingham? I don’t even need to explain that.
But, I mean, they see the doctrine of “realism” as just a kind of wild card that allows you to do whatever you want in the name of realism. But equally vehement about Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and worth trying to follow as a way of taming and legitimizing warfare in a civilized world. For Analysis? And in their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to happen, but you’ve got to exercise power and submit thesis university, innocents have to die, and thesis voorbeeld, eggs have to be broken to submit of nottingham make omelets. Birmingham Essay? He would never say that in that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in which what he writes can be very powerful in dealing with this way that “power is poison,” in Henry Adams’ terms – that it’s just inescapable. Thesis University? I’m not sure Obama – see, I’m mistaking this too – has quite come to terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. But that’s where I think the real test will come. But back to this issue of torture and war.
I think that the find homework help problem with Niebuhr is he doesn’t give you clear standards by submit university which to make judgments and have it legitimated in the public arena. CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at the same time saying, use the of salvador p. lopez power. DIONNE: I can’t prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. I think if you look back at some of the things Niebuhr said about the Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. I think he would have ended up on the side of those who said, we must fight the terrorists but we can’t use every method and that those methods demean us and submit university of nottingham, hurt us. And my support for that – again, we can’t know for certain – are the very last words of The Irony of of salvador p. lopez, American History . He says: “For if we should perish, the ruthlessness of the foe would be only the secondary cause of the disaster.
The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by submit university of nottingham some accident of nature or history but by hatred and essays p. lopez, vainglory.” If you want to make a case against waterboarding, that’s a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to say, since we’re going to play this “what would Reinhold say” game, I want to go in thesis university of nottingham with all four limbs. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the ways in of salvador which the submit thesis university jihadists have elements of truth in p. lopez their critique of American culture. Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. I don’t think there’s any doubt about it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is submit university of nottingham that the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the torture memos of 2005 are the kind of thing that shouldn’t be forgiven. And I don’t know.
What do you think about that kind of distinction, the sort of essays of salvador p. lopez, institutionalization versus the sort of thesis, crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right. The “what would Niebuhr say and mind introduction, do” debate is pretty tough to carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the submit thesis university of nottingham questions are going to – (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, that’s fair enough. I could imagine Niebuhr saying: “I understand in the heat of the days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and thesis voorbeeld, they may have done things they shouldn’t do.” I still find it hard – again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on the critical side because what’s so fascinating about Niebuhr is the neocons have always sort of submit, liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the legitimacy of using American power in the world. And there were moments when the people on the left were seen as always declaring that American power in the world, the use of American power, is wrong and illegitimate. So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is your friend. But, he was also always very wary of jingoism, of our tendency not to look at our own flaws, the danger of watsons go to question, overreach, the danger of doing things that were immoral in a moral cause.
And those are two sides of thesis of nottingham, Niebuhr, and in some ways, you can say it’s an ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and trembling and we have to thesis statement for analysis be very careful about how we use it. I don’t know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the submit university fundamental building blocks of the watsons birmingham essay question argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of innocence, desire for innocence. And I don’t know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to the current kind of orgy of interest in this subject that has to come up on every occasion. And I’m not criticizing you for bringing it up, and there has been a lot of this, I think, in the early months of this administration, this pushing the reset button, this desire to kind of scapegoat and exorcise the past. This is contrary to the spirit of Niebuhr. There’s no basis in thesis of nottingham Niebuhr for thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that there’s any reset button that any administration can ever push to make itself innocent.
So that doesn’t answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think it’s reasonable to deduce from his work – given that I don’t know what he’d say – but it’s reasonable to deduce that he might think that the emphasis on whether sending John Yoo and Jay Bybee to prison is going to atone for our national sins, over essay introduction a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to the national psyche, is thesis university of nottingham a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether that’s an anne book essay, appropriate deduction – that’s a different question. Thesis Of Nottingham? I think they’re connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : I’ll change the subject. I think I played this role before in this kind of setting. But let me maybe defend the social gospel – GERSON: – at least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on one point.
There seems to be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and Niebuhr as guide, to me. It seems like you wouldn’t necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at the way social progress took place in America. Of Salvador P. Lopez? It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for submit university of nottingham purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in it absolutely. You know, true believers in voorbeeld this context. Clearly, there are risks and submit thesis of nottingham, these were often eccentric people with kind of odd views, easy to make fun of. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by believers, not by watsons go to birmingham essay Niebuhrians. And I guess, in the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to do the navigation in my car, but he doesn’t provide the fuel to submit thesis university of nottingham get us there. The fuel is a belief in justice and truth in American history.
So I’m wondering how you combine that kind of respect for book review Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the motivating principle of either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that there’s a big difference between that and the kind of submit university of nottingham, reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on essay, conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the individual. And there’s a way in which the submit thesis university social gospel moves against for analysis that notion of individual conversion and individual accountability towards simply seeing the Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of thesis of nottingham, what we, through greater and great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the individual psyche. Birmingham Question? So I think – GERSON: If I could, Bill, you’re missing the submit thesis of nottingham question: religiously, the thesis voorbeeld more motivated moral idealism of American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: It’s hard to submit regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the advocates of the social gospel in changing the definition of the Democratic Party and doing all sorts of other things. Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that it’s been important in essays of salvador p. lopez and of itself, and that Niebuhr can’t replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say – Bill, do you want to – DIONNE: What I want to thesis of nottingham say, first of all, is review bless you for defending the social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in submit particular for voorbeeld their critique of the society that surrounded them.
But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in terms of submit, his own passion for justice. And by the way, you’re completely right about Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. Book? We forget how everybody sees him in light of the thesis of nottingham Scopes trial and thesis for analysis paper, forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and thesis of nottingham, how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. So I identify with all that. But I think you’re shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of his concern for justice. Richard Fox talks about watsons go to essay how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in his critique of how capitalism actually works.
In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We haven’t, for instance, solved the economic problem short of of nottingham, war preparations. There was a passion in him for justice. His critique of the social gospelers was not against introduction their mission. And he certainly did not lack for thesis university a willingness to fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for all kinds of corrections to a system of introduction, unfettered capitalism.
I think he was critical of social gospelers on two grounds. One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of submit university of nottingham, human nature and thought too much about salvation through social action. They forgot about find sin along the thesis of nottingham way. And that in turn led to sort of a politics that didn’t work. He was not against the original motives of the social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers’ goals, but with a kind of Niebuhrian correction. You know, in that famous speech at Sojourners, he talked a lot about social injustice, but then, he also talked about question individual accountability and responsibilities. He said when a gang member “shoots indiscriminately into a crowd … there’s a hole in that young man’s heart, a hole that the of nottingham government alone cannot fix.” Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and thesis statement, guidance, which “help fortify a young woman’s sense of thesis of nottingham, self, a young man’s sense of find help, responsibility, and submit, a sense of a beautiful mind, reverence that all young people should have for the act of university, sexual intimacy.” In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in the social gospel’s core purposes.
CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say we’ve got two people in and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and find, it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the nation, was the idea that an emphasis upon the collectivity over the individual could easily lend support to a kind of quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in his later book The Self and of nottingham, the Dramas of History that you have to have some source of value standing above the values inherent in history in order for those values to help have validity. And even though he was himself very much of university of nottingham, a theological liberal, he worried that the a beautiful mind essay introduction social gospel dispensed unwisely with the entire supernatural element of faith, which not only was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to tyrannize the submit thesis university individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: I’ve not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that you’ll laugh or something.
But it seems to me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in a broken world; but also of this narrative of redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. You know, we see the a beautiful mind sins of the submit thesis university of nottingham one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is obvious is that his understanding of morality appeared in the context of the a beautiful time: communism, the Nazis. What would he view as the evil today? What would his position be on the economic crisis? But also, is his effect on policy quantifiable? Did he have access to university presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of him on American policy in any kind of administration?
MCCLAY: On the last part, I don’t think so. Actually – an interesting little side point – he and Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the family. P. Lopez? He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in submit thesis of nottingham Niebuhr’s view. JFK was OK, by comparison, but the find thing he really held against JFK – and this is all amply documented in of nottingham correspondence – were his sexual dalliances – CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only about the sorts of risks that this would entail in thesis statement for analysis paper terms of blackmail and national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the character of the university of nottingham man.
So he was not close to Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in supporting Kennedy against essays of salvador p. lopez anti-Catholicism. Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to bigotry against Catholics, and thesis of nottingham, he played a very important role there. So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about his impact on policy over the whole period – his work in a beautiful mind essay the labor movement, his support for of nottingham the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for Democratic Action ¬- he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the ’30s, ’40s and find, ’50s. Submit University Of Nottingham? And he was an activist – you know, he started life as an activist pastor in essays a poor neighborhood. He wasn’t a community organizer, but he almost was.
So, I think it’s just hard to get into our heads the notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. So I don’t know how much he went in and out of the White House. University? He might not have even particularly wanted to do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of thesis voorbeeld, American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer. MCCLAY: Well, one area in which I think you can document influence is in the way that the doctrine of containment came to be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of appeasement, on the one hand, and of nottingham, what John Foster Dulles called “rollback,” on the other hand. It was an a beautiful essay, answer to submit thesis university Douglas McArthur’s famous statement, “There is no substitute for victory.” You know, it was this notion that containing – which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy – containing the voorbeeld expansion of communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to the destruction, the internal unraveling and destruction of the system.
Containment is a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in thesis the formulation of the thesis voorbeeld doctrine, was directly influenced by thesis university of nottingham Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I don’t think there’s any doubt that something of the Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in that long telegram and “Mr. X” article and help, these other documents that ended up becoming formative to containment – the way those policies and perspectives became formulated. So that’s a big influence.
GREEN: But the other part about the university great evil – what would he see as the great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just don’t know. He’d be very concerned about biotechnology, I suspect. Frank Book Review? He already was. In The Irony of American History there are already passages about it. Submit University Of Nottingham? So I think he’d be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : I’ll try to be quick. Writing about religion for The Wall Street Journal , I always look for anne frank book openings to talk about submit economics. So I wanted to press you, E.J., and you, Bill, a little more on his views on find homework, economics. It was interesting to submit thesis university of nottingham me that from the quote you read from Obama, he seemed right away to essays of salvador want to talk about Niebuhr’s view of economics, and submit thesis university, I think a lot of us tend to think about his views of foreign policy as the most formative ones.
And you seem to say that he was on board with the social gospelers as far as their view of economics went. And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the thesis voorbeeld potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of bringing themselves out of it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. He supported Norman Thomas on the Socialist Party ticket in 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of his friends were doing. There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from Niebuhr some support for free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , he’s completely sold on the structure and dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on submit university, the sort of anne book review essay, Madisonian idea – or Montesquieu, really – that it’s important to divide and submit university of nottingham, disperse power as much as possible.
But he’s clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and just kind of voorbeeld, go with the thesis university of nottingham journalism of the essays p. lopez day rather than thinking and thesis university, reading deeply into anne book essay it, and thinking independently. I think you can deduce free market principles, or at least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of principles from his view of politics. But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. He disliked Eisenhower and Eisenhower’s support for the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. Submit Thesis Of Nottingham? He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Fox’s biography. Fox says: “To remember Niebuhr is to remember the union movement in its heyday.
For most of his life, the anne frank book review essay word ‘justice,’ a term constantly on his lips, meant justice for workers, especially industrial workers. Only at the very end of his life did ‘justice’ come to mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice.” Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. “When Niebuhr tried to give concrete content to his notion of thesis, justice, he instinctively thought about equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and of salvador p. lopez, enacting social insurance schemes. Submit Thesis University Of Nottingham? He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in mind essay open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s.” So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter.
Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr. Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Joseph Rauh and mentioned that he worked for Niebuhr. But Jimmy Carter spoke about submit university of nottingham Reinhold Niebuhr on three separate occasions. Anne Book? I’ll go through it real quick because I want to ask each of you a question, what the implications are. One was in May of 1978. Carter was talking to the Los Angeles Bar Association and he said, “As a governor and as a president” – and this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor – he said that he’d learned that “as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the sad duty of politics to establish justice in a sinful world.” In March 1978, he said, “From the experience of the urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to submit thesis university be skeptical about what Reinhold Niebuhr called ‘the doctrine of salvation through bricks’ – the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems.” That was a bit of find help, a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in June, same year, he actually quoted and named Moral Man in Immoral Society , and Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr “pointed out the difference between a society and people. Submit Thesis University? The expectations and thesis statement for analysis paper, demands on a person are a much higher standard.
A person should have as our goal” – ungrammatical was his, not mine – “complete agape love.” The sitting president. He just went on this riff. University Of Nottingham? “The most we can expect from a society is to institute simple justice.” So my question for Bill is, what does this tell us about a president who embraces Niebuhr in this way and keeps coming back to him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that we’ve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gerson’s candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to essays p. lopez bring out a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No. Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. You were just quoting. Thesis? (Laughter.)
CANNON: From the public papers of the president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you? MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhr’s name tacked onto watsons the end of them. The thing about of nottingham bricks, I can’t even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. But he wrote so much that it’s quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at some point been a serious student of Niebuhr. A Beautiful Introduction? I just don’t know.
But there’s a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to say, well, you can’t expect the same things of institutions that you do of submit thesis of nottingham, individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. You don’t really need all that heavy theological artillery to make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader – I don’t know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. Such referencing of Niebuhr was a way of redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and breeding. I don’t want to go to birmingham essay question be too harsh about it. But if you look at Carter’s presidency, I think, in fact, many of the criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the children of light – that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and the virtuousness of their cause, and submit thesis university of nottingham, that by watsons birmingham question being virtuous and showing their virtue they will sway the submit university opinions of others – this just doesn’t work in Niebuhr’s view. The biblical passage – DIONNE: The children of darkness are wiser in this world than the children of essays p. lopez, light.
MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes. In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the parable of the dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the thesis university of nottingham most perplexing things in birmingham question the entire New Testament.
I never have known what it means. Thesis Of Nottingham? But I think Carter, in practice, didn’t show an thesis, ability to submit university exercise the kind of shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an effective leader needed to show. He hadn’t really taken in all of Moral Man and Immoral Society . Voorbeeld? By the way, as we were talking I did think of something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. Thesis Of Nottingham? I was going to say that. That’s really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back – I believe it’s the last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society – there’s a discussion of non-violent resistance that’s a blueprint for what King does, and find homework, King evidently read it and was very influenced by it. King is not an example of a political leader, but an submit university of nottingham, example of a social leader, a movement leader.
DIONNE: And I just wanted to underscore too, that if you talk about somebody’s influence – “by their fruits shall ye know them” – King did a lot of his academic work on Niebuhr. Richard Fox says Niebuhr didn’t see race as early as he saw the injustice of labor, but he was pretty early in understanding how important racial equality was. And in terms of p. lopez, Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and is, an intellectually serious believer and he’s an intellectually serious believer of submit thesis university, a certain age. Anne Review? And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I don’t think Jimmy Carter lost in 1980 because he sort of university, loved Reinhold Niebuhr. I don’t think it changes our view of him.
I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. Statement Paper? He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and submit thesis of nottingham, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And I don’t know what one can draw from his love for Niebuhr out of those things. I don’t mean to be glib about it. I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and a good side of Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher – speaking in reaction to other people. And it seems like that’s particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of religious liberals and of salvador, particularly the social gospel. You could be excused for submit of nottingham coming away from that thinking that he wasn’t that different and statement for analysis, that he believed Christians still should be engaged in thesis university of nottingham efforts to make the find homework help world a better place and progress in social causes. University Of Nottingham? They just shouldn’t be surprised if bad things happen and their hands got dirty. But there must be more to it than that.
And I wondered if one or both of you could talk just a little bit about p. lopez what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, I’m afraid this is going to sound like I’m rehashing what I said but maybe I didn’t say it well enough. Submit University? I think that Niebuhr wanted to review essay stress – and thesis university, yes, he is counterpunching when he does this – that there is no resolution to the problems of politics in this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to try to do so. But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into being, where the self-realization of individuals is going to occur in an unimpeded way, that it’s possible to imagine that the interests of different individuals and different groups are not going to clash, and clash in a way that’s more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in essays of salvador p. lopez complexion but will not clash – that’s an illusion.
MCCLAY: Yes. I don’t believe in being concise. Submit University Of Nottingham? They pay me by the word. But you know, I’m trying to unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesn’t just mean having moderate expectations. It doesn’t mean that perfection can only be approached asymptotically, and go to, is not achievable for us here below. For Niebuhr, it is something much more disturbing. Submit? It’s the notion that the mind essay introduction more we progress, the more we put ourselves in danger. That’s a very scary but very powerful principle.
And I think that’s very different from the kind of progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. But there’s an argument to be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and naive as he makes them out to be. And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is what do Christians then do with that? That may be the submit university view, but then, how should they proceed?
DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians – it was a deep assumption reflected in the way he lived his life and the way he was a pastor – that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. When you were a minister in a poor parish in Detroit – a place you love – at a beautiful mind essay a time of union organizing, low wages and all the struggles going on. It was built into submit thesis the cake, if you were his kind of Christian, that you would be engaged in social action. What he was about thesis paper was trying to think through not only thesis, what was the most effective form of social action, but also how should one think about that social action as a Christian. He came to homework help believe – he started out as a socialist, and thesis university, still maintained some of the essay introduction socialist aspirations – nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and also as ineffectual in politics. Larry O’Brien, who was an aide to Kennedy and submit university of nottingham, a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . And I think that’s an thesis statement, excellent view of democratic – small ‘d’ – politics. Thesis? I suppose, for that matter, capital ‘d’ too. There are no final victories in democratic politics because we are imperfect.
The world is imperfect. All political systems are imperfect, so you have to just keep fighting. And you shouldn’t give up because you don’t win a final victory. It’s a philosophy of constant improvement and accepting that setbacks happen along the way. Watsons Go To? And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think that’s what it comes down to. And, at least to me, that is submit university of nottingham probably the most rational way to approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing?
I think I’m getting a better feel for what you’re really asking. And I think it bears on anne book essay, Mike Gerson’s question and point, which I didn’t initially understand either. Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to correct it, how to keep it from its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical. This is one of the problems about submit university of nottingham reviving Niebuhr – the fact that his time isn’t the one we live in now. Today, an intelligent person is faced with the question: “Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the Christian modifier contribute to all of this?” And I think Mike’s point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on this too.
These are questions that Niebuhr didn’t really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the conversation about Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And I’m wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at all in American Christianity today, given that that was the realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of examining politics and watsons birmingham, theologians’ influence on it besides Niebuhr. Looking at Obama, his public statements, the degree to which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I don’t know if you’d go so far as to say actions. I mean, I think that’s more difficult to analyze, but if you could speak to that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to start with, and university, I think E.J. would be better on anne frank book review, Obama than I am. One thing that’s curious about all of this, and I think it tells you something about the times we’re living in too, is that – I think I mentioned this in submit university of nottingham passing – if you venture into the seminaries, what you will find is that Niebuhr is almost universally held in low esteem. And I think among many of the brightest young theologians I know, and some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant.
CROMARTIE: Is it because they don’t like the ambiguity? MCCLAY: I think they don’t like the anne frank review essay ambiguity, and, in submit university some ways, they don’t see him as being bold enough. He’s tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Stanley Hauerwas is – CROMARTIE: A theologian at Duke University. MCCLAY: – is, in find homework help some ways, far more influential. And Stanley Hauerwas – to talk about a counterpuncher – he has pretty much made a career out of submit university of nottingham, eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at every turn, including in his own Gifford lectures. So what’s odd is that people in the position of David Brooks and E.J. and others – I suspect E.J. has a little more contact with the academy than David does – they’re the ones who are interested in Niebuhr. And people like me. I’m a historian.
I’m not even in a theological world. But the theologians, I think they see him as a back number. Now, what that means, I don’t know. Watsons Go To Birmingham Question? People like Hauerwas have a much more – to submit thesis university of nottingham use the word these theologians would use – “prophetic” engagement with the culture and with politics. One way of translating “prophetic” means without any sort of acknowledgement of the sort of mind introduction, half-measures and thesis university, compromises and thesis for analysis, acquiescence that you need to thesis university of nottingham make to watsons birmingham question be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in people who make very bold statements.
And in that sense, ambiguity is indeed part of the complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in Cambridge, Mass. Or at least, if you know, in the divinity school or in submit university of nottingham the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught. And the guy who occupies it – DIONNE: He’s a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. He’s a big critic of Niebuhr. DIONNE: He’s an affectionate critic of Niebuhr.
CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you don’t have to answer the question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is what will cause you to withdraw the invitation to me to speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the book divinity school at Harvard and almost no contact with theologians. It’s not a matter of principle. (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in the ’60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. And essentially along the lines of submit of nottingham, what’s been discussed here, in this kind of tragic realism kind of sense.
So, probably, most political scientists of my generation know a little bit about a beautiful Niebuhr. University Of Nottingham? But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about him. And maybe they should, I think, from a political-science point of view, not from anne essay, a theological point of view. This recent Niebuhr revival is submit thesis of nottingham actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of a beautiful introduction, what’s happening religiously, but mostly what’s happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is partly the Lincoln tolerance part and partly the thesis university unintended consequences part: Don’t start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because you’re almost certain to get it wrong. That part, along with the hope part. Essays Of Salvador P. Lopez? I don’t know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the submit thesis of nottingham ethos of our times. But actually I don’t have any reason to disagree with the account that was offered about Niebuhr’s standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than – CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want – DIONNE: It’s overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this.
It seems to me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in the 1960s and voorbeeld, that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. Submit Thesis University Of Nottingham? He wasn’t left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to some of the theological trends in the late ’60s and ’70s, the death of God movement, the theology of hope, the theology of liberation – I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the journalistic and political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in the academy. Statement For Analysis? For example, Harvey Cox was one of my old teachers at submit Harvard Divinity School, and he was to of salvador Niebuhr’s left.
And he had a very interesting little letter in The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to submit thesis of nottingham Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. I want to ask Cox about essay this. I think it reflects Niebuhr’s resurrection – a good theme for a Christian theologian – and thesis university of nottingham, the new engagement with Niebuhr that’s going on now. Bill is absolutely right about Hauerwas. Hauerwas, by the way, played a big role in the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. So I don’t dispute much of what Bill said, but I think that for a variety of reasons, some of mind essay, them having to thesis do with the zeitgeist, there is a kind of rediscovery of voorbeeld, Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the appeals of Hauerwas, and I think one of the concerns – this is a Putnam-esque theme, that’s why I’m bringing it up – Niebuhr really was in his heyday in the ’30s through the ’50s.
Living in submit those years, it is not surprising that individualism and help, what might be called the sort of defense of the integrity of the individual over against collectivities and groups of submit thesis university of nottingham, any kind became one of thesis voorbeeld, his greatest themes. That is thesis not, it seems to me, so large a concern now. I think there’s a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. To take it to homework help a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the university young, that our churches are not organizations in homework which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. And I think there is a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and submit of nottingham, vital form of community than Niebuhr really has to offer, because Niebuhr is very guarded.
He offers a very low level of social trust, Niebuhr. Essays Of Salvador? He’s always looking out for the ways the individual can be captured and co-opted by groups, and trying to thesis of nottingham maintain that individual’s independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds – just 10 quick seconds on thesis voorbeeld, that. There’s a debate over whether the university Niebuhr of Moral Man and essays of salvador p. lopez, Immoral Society , which is decidedly against the collective – but remember, he’s writing in a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising – whether that emphasis is quite as strong in university some of the later work. And I’d argue that there is a greater concern for community in thesis voorbeeld the Niebuhr of the ’40s and ’50s than there was in that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the table have also observed that Niebuhr is primarily a counterpuncher. Submit Thesis University Of Nottingham? The culture and theology against which he was counterpunching then is just very different from the kind of theology and society in which it would be useful to thesis statement paper have counterpunching now. That’s my view, and submit thesis, I guess that’s close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is essays of salvador p. lopez aimed at you, professor: How did the Holocaust influence Niebuhr?
As you said – or as E.J. might have said – he was in submit of nottingham his heyday during this period, and I know he certainly was a supporter of the state of thesis statement paper, Israel and all that, but you know, you often don’t get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the great issues of the world happening. So I’m just wondering, how did the Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the’40s? Well, I don’t know. I can’t answer for submit thesis of nottingham that. I think it’s not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think – and go to essay, this is sort of a cliche, but I think it’s true – that it was really after the ’67 and ’73 wars that the submit thesis Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. So there are a lot of homework, people who we might have expected to give more attention to thesis university it who didn’t. But that doesn’t answer, and frank book review essay, I really can’t answer the point about how he saw the Holocaust. I mean, he was very aware of issues like the firebombing of Dresden and strategic bombing in general and the use of submit of nottingham, nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and essays of salvador p. lopez, one of the submit reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil.
And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in the idea that it was demonic in thesis general, but in particular, demonic in its treatment of the Jews. So I don’t know what he was. I just don’t know the thesis of nottingham answer to the question of homework, what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. But everything in his history – all of submit thesis of nottingham, his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of a beautiful mind introduction, other Jewish leaders, and his writing about Nazis, says this was all very important to him. I don’t have in of nottingham front of me more detail than that. But it mattered to thesis him. It mattered to submit him enormously.
CROMARTIE: How close was he to Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I don’t know if they knew each other. Thesis For Analysis? They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about that yesterday. I’m going to look it up actually. Submit Of Nottingham? I have Fox’s biography so I’m going to look it up. Thesis Statement For Analysis? I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I don’t think – CROMARTIE: It was brief. It was brief.
CROMARTIE: We’re moving the Niebuhr library books back and forth. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesn’t only, necessarily, relate to Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in thesis university of nottingham the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and others as “atheists for essays p. lopez Niebuhr.” He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from thesis university of nottingham, his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. There’s a story about the Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in a beautiful mind essay introduction western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of thesis university, time.
And Niebuhr’s daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about this little town. Felix Frankfurter came out there once and went to a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhr’s hand and said, “Thank you for preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the heart of essays of salvador, a believing unbeliever.” And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, “Thank you, that means so much to me, an unbelieving believer.” So he had a great degree of comfort with people of submit university, non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to statement for analysis answer the question from Fox’s biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called “Jews after the thesis university of nottingham War.” And Fox notes that one of homework help, his major reasons for favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to submit thesis university the Jews. By the early ’30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. So it was a big part of him.
FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhr’s objection to Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of American religion in the ’50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to essays of salvador American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in submit of nottingham a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on individual conversion and nothing else, at essay least in Niebuhr’s view. Submit University? And let me quickly add that this was not at all fair to essay introduction Billy Graham. In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in the area of civil rights, for example, and did things that went beyond a lot of what Niebuhr did. But that was Niebuhr’s view. And it’s true that Graham didn’t challenge social structures. He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and certainly not anything that he ever sought to do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in submit thesis New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Graham’s New York crusade. Statement For Analysis Paper? And because of that criticism, Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr and thesis of nottingham, Niebuhr refused to meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this.
This is from thesis statement paper, Fox’s book: “Niebuhr found himself pushed to a defense of the same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for of nottingham decades by mind introduction Graham. It might have lacked ‘realism,’ he said, but it was ‘infinitely more realistic than the pietistic individualism which it replaced and which Graham was resurrecting.’ Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the submit thesis of nottingham popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of judgment altogether,” but Fox quotes Niebuhr – this is about Graham – “‘Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.'” ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : I’m going to ask two questions. Go To Birmingham Question? One is submit of nottingham about Niebuhr’s influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of things. I wonder if he had much influence in Britain or Europe?
And the second is essays p. lopez about this other character who seems to thesis university of nottingham have suffered the same fate as a lot of frank book review, people in the politburo when they fell out of submit thesis university, favor, sort of being written completely out of homework help, history – Jeremiah Wright. I wondered what sort of influence Niebuhr had on Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldn’t know about the second one. I mean, my sense of thesis university of nottingham, Jeremiah Wright is that he’s much more influenced by James Cone and by black liberation theology, although I’m sure he had some contact. Mind? You don’t associate a whole lot of ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but – (laughter) – I really don’t know that much about him other than the submit thesis Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about essays of salvador British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of submit thesis university, this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in which ended up being part of what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. Watsons Birmingham Essay Question? People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of submit thesis university of nottingham, a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and wrote for Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture.
So he was part of that world and voorbeeld, was read all over Europe, not just in Great Britain. Of Nottingham? And there’s a bit of a revival of Niebuhr going on in the U.K. now. There’s a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at Leicester who’s written a very good book on voorbeeld, Niebuhr that’s well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of him? MCCLAY: It’s more of an explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages? DIONNE: You know, I think that’s right. I agree with what Bill said in terms of the transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and university of nottingham, his view of thesis, foreign policy. Thesis Of Nottingham? He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of book review, influence over there. University? On Jeremiah Wright, I did an help, interview with Obama in thesis university of nottingham that period for a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and Wright.
He noted that in his early stage King had the combination that was all about – publicly, especially – reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the end of his life, particularly about the thesis voorbeeld Vietnam War, and that Wright came along in that late stage and was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the civil rights years than by the spirit of hope at the beginning of the university of nottingham civil rights years. And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of essays p. lopez, all those post-liberal theological developments in divinity schools that led to more radical forms of theology. But I bet you – I’m sure Wright had to have some contact with the ideas of Niebuhr. He was in the United Church of thesis, Christ which, you know, had a lot in common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhr’s work, one would think.
DIONNE: That’s an interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. Thesis Voorbeeld? I mean – the whole “chickens coming home to roost” trope – that’s a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the submit of nottingham theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of of salvador p. lopez, Obama’s rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if you’re daring enough to read it into his actual policies. Just to kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of thesis, Obama.
DIONNE: I have tried to voorbeeld figure out who has influenced him. If you read the Sojourners speech, he’s clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at submit of nottingham the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the obligations of the religious person in the public square in making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the essays p. lopez same religious commitments? With the submit thesis university public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so that’s one set of mind essay introduction, influences on him. I think the formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of civil rights Christianity. And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of King – and not only King’s rhetoric but also his theology, in the way he speaks. And in some ways, what I see in Obama is an effort to go back to submit thesis university of nottingham civil rights Christianity as part of his way of anne frank, reformulating a sort of progressive gospel – to make a link between that and Niebuhr, which is of nottingham quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in a lot of his language. But beyond that, I don’t know. I’d be very curious. It’s a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to add to that? MCCLAY: Well I’m sure you’re right about watsons birmingham question that and this is submit just something I don’t know enough about.
But I’ve read The Audacity of Hope and the other autobiographical book and I don’t think his rhetoric has the kind of yeastiness of a lot of the ’60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out of the black Baptist church. You know that book by David Chappell, A Stone of Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in which the mind civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think it’s a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer – who admittedly is hardly typical – everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of a black sermon. And Obama is much more of a guy who went to prep school, who went to elite colleges and universities and wants to kind of university of nottingham, draw on that religious language and imagery, but I just don’t know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in understanding King is thesis statement Jonathan Rieder’s The Word of the Lord is submit thesis university Upon Me , and the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of Martin Luther King Jr. And what Jonathan’s book points out is mind essay introduction that King had many different rhetorical styles used at submit thesis university of nottingham different moments and with different audiences. And I think it’s a really good account of King taken whole. Frank Review Essay? There’s a lot of use of King for particular purposes and people quote the more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, you’ve got to take him whole with all of these parts, and it’s a very interesting take on King, I think.
MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on of nottingham, that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to Lincoln as the thesis voorbeeld example of Niebuhrian rhetoric in American history. If you look at thesis university the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is anne review pretty rare. I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didn’t use it – he used The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness . During the Cold War, John Kennedy didn’t use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of King’s rhetoric, whatever his influences by submit university of nottingham Niebuhr, were certainly more in the social justice tradition. You know, the kingdom of God on Earth. Mind? But I think there’s a misinterpretation of Lincoln in a lot of ways.
I think the submit of nottingham subtext of the second inaugural address is the evil of slavery, not some kind of paradox or irony in anne book essay that circumstance. There’s a certain humility in its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and South – they were both complicit in it. But I think it’s a misunderstanding of Lincoln in a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and paradox; there’s none there. But what does it say that when people need to motivate in American history – if you’re Franklin Roosevelt and you’re engaged in the long twilight struggle, that you don’t use Niebuhrian language – that it isn’t even a rhetorical option in American history? You call people to submit thesis grand purposes and moral missions and American exceptionalism and a lot of other things – and how did Niebuhr himself kind of deal with that notion?
DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I don’t think there’s any ambiguity in Niebuhr’s view about paper slavery. The paradox and irony around and about slavery – the paradox and irony are that even though you are engaged in a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in submit of nottingham its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of thesis voorbeeld, war create sin on both sides even though the core sin of slavery is at the heart of it. So I don’t think he is ironic about slavery itself and thesis university of nottingham, I was not asserting that and would not assert that. GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. I think, actually, if you look at voorbeeld Lincoln’s rhetoric and actions on submit thesis university, these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in essays of salvador p. lopez these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the submit thesis of nottingham Union and, you know, the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives on frank book review essay, moral principle. That had a terrible cost, which he realized.
But he was willing to do those things. But just on the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in rhetoric. I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the moral ambiguity? I’m just curious about the level of rhetoric. MCCLAY: I think it’s worth pointing out that at submit thesis the time that he gave the second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to win and that it was going to happen very soon. So, while I do think it is thesis voorbeeld a tremendously magnanimous speech, it’s the magnanimity of the victor. And that’s important to note, but the other thing is that there is a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in that instance, in submit university of nottingham calling the nation to a task that has yet to be performed – to heal, to reconcile.
Particularly in the case of this particular war, the point is not just to crush the South; it’s to bring the South back into the Union, into this sort of family that they had thought to extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in – maybe E.J. already said this – in not saying well, we’ve defeated the bad guys and now we’re going to be a morally better nation because we’ve defeated the bad guys. A Beautiful Essay Introduction? What he says is, that this is a national sin for which we all bear some responsibility; it is a mark upon all of is, and maybe this war came because of the need to submit university of nottingham expiate the essay sin of slavery, and if it has to university of nottingham go on and on and on, the essays of salvador p. lopez judgments of the university Lord are true and go to birmingham question, righteous altogether. So he’s – GERSON: Maybe I shouldn’t have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, that’s a different debate. GERSON: The point is the difference between Niebuhr’s diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the university Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhr’s influence waned in the aftermath of that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of some of the greatest moral achievements in human history. It wasn’t as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in p. lopez the aftermath of World War II because it had been a very good one. The Cold War was conducted with a language of moral certainty – DIONNE: Can we go back and forth on thesis, this?
Because I think the very notion of containment, as opposed to rollback, was in fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. In other words, I think what’s important is thesis statement that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the submit thesis university of nottingham morality of the struggle. And it’s good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on the record correctly, said that Lincoln’s brooding sense of charity was derived from a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning than that of immediate political conflict. This combination – a moral resoluteness – about the immediate issues with a religious awareness of another dimension of anne book essay, meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the submit university difficult but not impossible task of remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of birmingham question, a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over submit thesis of nottingham the struggle on the other. Niebuhr was at watsons go to question his high tide in the ’40s and ’50s because he believed in the struggle against the Nazis, the liberation of death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the very idea that he was in favor of submit, containment as opposed to rollback says that we can behave in the world in a way that is responsible in confronting communism but does not carry all the risks that rollback would entail. I think possibly – and we would probably both have to look this up and then we could debate the text – I do think some of Kennedy’s rhetoric had some of that in it. The very notion of a long twilight struggle is quite different from what you say in the middle of a war – for thesis statement paper example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Kennedy’s speech in favor of disarmament at submit thesis university American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements.
And then Obama going to Europe and saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in a kind of anti-Americanism that’s dangerous. That struck me – now, maybe I was looking for it – but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Others didn’t think it was a good thing to say. But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message.
JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the office of faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and I realized that at essays p. lopez the end we came to this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to what he’s trying to thesis do to with this office. And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in watsons go to essay question the re-casting of the thesis university of nottingham office – because ultimately I think four or five of us at the table couldn’t quite figure out thesis statement paper what he’s trying to do. Maybe that’s the purpose. Submit? You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and for analysis, the second-worst thing is what he’s doing in submit thesis university of nottingham letting it sit there and fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obama’s thinking on the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of this, and he does, but we don’t know. Anne Frank Review? (Laughter.) I think what Obama is trying to do is walk a line between not wanting to submit university of nottingham overturn it and thinking there is good work done here; and in fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on both sides if liberals say, this is a Bush creation and we’re against it. Well, it wasn’t a Bush creation; he pushed it in certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and that can distort the conservative view as well.
And I think Obama is trying to figure out, “How can I be true to things I say or believe about church-state separation and religious liberty and still keep this thing going?” So I think they’re still struggling toward resolving that, and he’s clearly kicked down the road the hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and mind introduction, he’s clearly tried to fudge that for a while, and my impression is that he’s going to fudge it for a while longer. I think he’s going to submit thesis have to statement confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did – shrewd because I thought he did the right thing – was to submit thesis say we don’t want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is voorbeeld quite a lot of common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the first faith-based offices at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the administration. So what Obama’s doing is submit not that far out of line with what a number of Democrats have done, and essays of salvador, certainly Clinton before him. And so I think they’re still figuring it out, is the short answer. CROMARTIE: You have anything to add to that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the continuity with Clinton.
You know, Charitable Choice came in of nottingham during the watsons go to birmingham Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you can’t discriminate against a faith-based organization in awarding government contracts for submit university of nottingham the provision of social welfare. You can’t discriminate against them simply because of their religious identity. This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and others have brought up, or maybe it was in our conversation on the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at one time in the past correctives seemed to have been needed to thesis protect the thesis secular, to keep the find help religious realm from submit university of nottingham, overwhelming the thesis statement for analysis secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and Republican administrations have seen the need to push back the other way, to some extent. Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I don’t know.
But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for a while, even if it hasn’t always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of heated agreement – (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: – raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you. There will be another reception out there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of Niebuhr and we’ll continue the conversation. Join me in thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for clarity, accuracy, spelling and thesis of nottingham, grammar. Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.
Nondiscrimination. American and Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class?
Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the find issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and submit university, the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions.
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25 Awesome Online T-Shirt Shops For Your Inspiration. Whether you are looking to buy a creative t-shirt or interested in finding inspiration for your next web design project, browsing the websites of t-shirt shops can be a fun experience. T-shirts have been a popular product in university of nottingham the e-commerce world for the past several years, and although some shops come and go, the abundance of e-commerce sites selling t-shirts has continued. If you#8217;re a designer looking for inspiration, there are a number of well-designed t-shirt websites, and thesis we#8217;ll showcase 25 of them in this post. If you#8217;re looking to start your own e-commerce site, browsing other online shops is a great way to submit thesis of nottingham get some ideas for your own site. The AwesomeTees website features a beautiful, clean design and introduction layout. The t-shirts are showcased an a white background, which really helps them to pop.
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Cotton Mather Wonders Of The Invisible World Essays and submit university, Research Papers. ? Analysis of thesis voorbeeld The Wonders of the Invisible World In this primary document, Cotton . Mather , a Puritan theologian, writes about his fears of losing the entire country to submit thesis of nottingham, the devil and his minions as the thesis voorbeeld, Christian religion, in his mind, is being slowly eradicated from the university of nottingham, entire country due to witchcraft. In 1693 Cotton Mather wrote a literary piece called The Wonders of the Invisible World a year after questionable events in defense of the persecutions of those accused and convicted in Salem for. Anxiety , Christianity , Claustrophobia 891 Words | 3 Pages. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD Various lists of the Wonders of the thesis voorbeeld, World have been compiled from university of nottingham . antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.The Seven Wonders of the mind introduction, Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable creations of classical antiquity, and was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and thesis of nottingham, only includes works located around the anne, Mediterranean rim.
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Funny? May be, but it is a fact. It is tough to imagine how people with minimum tools and equipments could build a pyramid of essays p. lopez such a size or a complete village at the height of 8000 ft. Submit Thesis? Yes, everyone is wondering, that is why may be, man decided to make a list of seven wonders , so that, there. Agra , Colosseum , Mughal Empire 2000 Words | 6 Pages. The New Seven Wonders of the World. New Seven Wonders of the World From Wikipedia, the voorbeeld, free encyclopedia This article is about the New 7 Wonders . Thesis University? Foundation list. Thesis Voorbeeld? For other uses, see Wonders of the World . New Seven Wonders of the submit thesis university, World was a project that attempted to update the voorbeeld, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World concept with a modern list of wonders . Thesis? A popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and homework, organized by submit university, the Swiss-based, government-controlled New7Wonders Foundation, with winners announced on July 7, 2007.
Cultural lists , Egyptian pyramids , Great Pyramid of Giza 708 Words | 3 Pages. Seven Ancient Wonders Of The World. Man fears Time, yet Time fears the mind essay introduction, PyramidsThe Great Pyramid of Giza lies next to Cairo. It is today in greater Cairo. According to the . Of Nottingham? wonders of the ancient world , the pyramid of Khufu is the only pyramid included in anne book, the list of the wonders . The other two of the pyramids of Giza are excluded from the submit, list. This is the find, only monument of the seven wonders to survive till today in thesis university of nottingham, perfect condition and managing mere escapes from statement fires, earthquakes and other common disasters that hold a threat to. Alexander the Great , Ancient Egypt , Babylon 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Abstract Various Wonders of the submit thesis university of nottingham, World lists have been compiled over the ages in essays of salvador, order to thesis, catalogue the most spectacular natural . and of salvador, man-made constructions. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of remarkable man-made creations of classical antiquity, and was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim. Later lists include those for the Medieval World , the Modern World , the Natural World and others. Submit Thesis University? The. Ancient Egypt , Egyptian pyramids , Giza Necropolis 1925 Words | 5 Pages. The Seven Ancient Wonders of the thesis voorbeeld, World. Seven Wonders of the World , works of art and submit of nottingham, architecture regarded by ancient Greek and Roman observers as the most extraordinary . structures of antiquity. Essays P. Lopez? The listing of ancient wonders probably began in ancient Greece in thesis, around the 2nd century BC, but the Seven Wonders that were most commonly referred to were listed some time after that. All built in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East area, some time from around 2600 BC up to about AD 476, the voorbeeld, Wonders are: (1) The Pyramids of Egypt, at. Alexandria , Ancient Egypt , Colossus of Rhodes 2386 Words | 7 Pages. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World There are Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . However, . the list we have today was not established until the end of The Middle Ages. Thesis Of Nottingham? This list includes: the Great Pyramid, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Statue of find help Zeus at Olympia, the Temple of Diana at submit thesis of nottingham Ephesus, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Pharos of Alexandria. There have been several different lists over the years that have included different wonders . The Great. Alexander the Great , Ancient Egypt , Ancient Egyptian pyramids 2442 Words | 6 Pages. Seven Ancient Wonders of the essays of salvador, World. Seven Ancient Wonders of the World 3 The Seven Wonders of the ancient world have many . amazed with their beauty, size, and magnificence. From pyramids, to monuments, and towering statues these are just few of the wonders that have many puzzled. Most question how it was even possible for the wonders to be constructed with the use of modern machines and tools. Also how do we even know all existed; only one of the seven are still standing. Much of thesis university of nottingham what we know comes from watsons birmingham essay texts left behind. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Artemis 2121 Words | 3 Pages.
7 Wonders Of The World The Taj Mahal For centuries, the Taj Mahal has inspired poets, painters and musicians who have tried . to capture its elusive magic in words, colours and music. The Taj Mahal is indeed a flawless architectural creation.The links listed here take one to submit thesis, sites that are related to essays, the Taj Mahal – like we have a site on the construction of submit thesis of nottingham this beautiful monument of love, a site which has photographs of the review essay, Taj Mahal, a site giving you information about the Mughal Dynasty and. Colosseum , Italy , Maya civilization 867 Words | 3 Pages. structures on the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world is thesis university of nottingham The Great Pyramid of Giza. What makes this structure the . Thesis? most recognizable on the list? Not only is thesis university this pyramid the oldest structure on the list, but it is the a beautiful mind introduction, only structure that still remains. The Great Pyramid of Giza was the tallest man made structure in submit thesis university of nottingham, the world for thesis paper 3800 years which is not only a testament to its durability but to its mark as one of the most remarkable structures built. It is no wonder that The Great Pyramid of. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Egyptian pyramids 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World While the thesis, ancient world left little written record, the evidence that we do . have depicts it as far more advanced and culturally rich than many would expect.
From the Phoenicians in Mesopotamia to the Mayans in Central America, technological advancements and complex theories drove the ancient civilizations ahead. Anne Frank Book Essay? Great thinkers from that period like Socrates left huge marks on the literary world . Great scientists like Copernicus developed theories that provided. 1st millennium , Alexander the Great , Ancient Egypt 2240 Words | 6 Pages. ? Cotton Fibers Name: Maya Abou Ajram Subject: Design Material 2 Year: Fall 2014-2015 Introduction Cotton is a soft staple fiber . that grown in a form known as a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions. Cotton fibers are mainly made up of cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds. The cotton fibers are attached to the seeds inside the of nottingham, boll of the plant. There are usually six or seven. Cell wall , Cellulose , Cotton 470 Words | 6 Pages. essay on seven wonders of the world. The new Seven Wonders of the World were announced in July 2007.
They are Taj Mahal of India, Christ Redeemer of Brazil, the Great . Wall of thesis for analysis paper China, Roman Colosseum of Italy, Petra of Jordan, Pyramid at Chichen Itza of Mexico, and Machu Picchu of Peru. The sites were selected on submit university of nottingham the basis of a tally of anne frank book review essay around 100 million votes cast by thesis university, people around the world over the Internet and of salvador p. lopez, cell-phone text messages. These attractions were on the shortlist of 21 before the announcement of the submit thesis university of nottingham, results in a glittering. Agra , Colosseum , Mughal Empire 1306 Words | 4 Pages. of the current (2011/2012) seven natural wonders of the world as chosen by the public from a vote. The votes are held by the . New7Wonders initiative started in 2007. It was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and is a Swiss-based foundation. The last vote was held at 11.11am in November 11th 2011. The results of this poll will be announced in the early months of 2012 after stringent counts, checks and rechecks.
Below is of salvador p. lopez a list of the submit, current seven wonders before these changes come into force. Find Homework? The. Amazon Rainforest , Amazon River , Australia 609 Words | 3 Pages. The Ancient Seven Wonders of the World. Ancient World Wonders The Ancient Seven Wonders of the World reflected the ability of the men to . change the nature in order to build wonderful and submit thesis of nottingham, beautiful structures which amaze and inspire people. It is believed that these constructions of classical antiquity were constructed since 2700 B.C. but, unfortunately, only thesis for analysis paper one of the wonders mentioned by Herodotus has survived until today: The Pyramids of Giza.
However, the Ancient Seven Wonders list included: The Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens. Ancient Egypt , Babylon , Egyptian pyramids 2063 Words | 5 Pages. Preparing Invisible Ink Without Heat. ?How to Make Invisible Ink Without Heat Invisible ink is the perfect way for kids to send each other secret messages, play . detective or just learn about the wonders of science. You don't need a dangerous heat source to reveal secret ink messages, just a few things from your kitchen.
Have materials on hand for your child's next birthday party, or let kids send spy coded messages at submit thesis of nottingham school or church events. It's an inexpensive activity that kids of thesis for analysis paper all ages will enjoy doing. Other People Are Reading . Brush , Citrus , Ink 424 Words | 3 Pages. learning about the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . In 2007, the New7Wonders Foundation organized a poll of modern . wonders and 1 million votes were cast. The following 7 were the winners: 1. Chichen Itza (Yucatan, Mexico) 2. Christ the thesis university, Redeemer (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 3. Colosseum (Rome, Italy) 4. Great Wall of China (China) 5. Machu Picchu (Cuzco, Peru) 6. Petra (Jordan) 7. Taj Mahal (Agra, India) Assignment: You are to choose one of the New 7 Wonders of the essays of salvador, world and submit university, write a five paragraph. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Introduction 1246 Words | 5 Pages. 7 Ancient Wonders of the statement for analysis, World 1. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon ? Located approximately 50km south of Baghdad, Iraq on the . Submit University Of Nottingham? east bank of the Euphrates River.
King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC), grandson of the famous King Hammurabi, is credited to have commissioned the construction of the gardens. Thesis Statement For Analysis? Although no tablets were found in Babylon referring to the Gardens, accountings from the ancient Greek historian, Strabo, state that the university of nottingham, The Garden is quadrangular, and each side is four plethra long. British Museum , Colossus of Rhodes , Great Pyramid of Giza 1098 Words | 3 Pages. Weslaco High School Invisible Pete Hautman Michaele Anyah Martinez English 3 H. Hernandez October 26, 2012 Michaele A. Martinez . H. Hernandez English 3 26 October 2012 Invisible Madham is the self-built town. It’s a town made up of frank book review essay 22,400 matchsticks, it contains 109 buildings, all scratch built. Thesis Of Nottingham? There are two lakes, a football stadium, a cement plant, a hospital, two tunnels, a forest, and watsons birmingham, sixty feet of track. It has a population of 289 plastic people standing at less. Burn , Doug , High school 944 Words | 3 Pages. Alexis Arendt Mrs.
Farschman English 11 February 5, 2013 Cotton Mather On February 12, 1663 I came into a family of Puritan . Ministers. Submit Thesis Of Nottingham? My father was a well - respected Puritan Minister of a small church in the town of Boston, Massachusetts. At age 12 I attended the University of Harvard. After being born into a Puritan family, I brought it upon of salvador, myself to submit, become a minister. My first sermon was preached during the month of August in the year 1680. At the age of 22, I officially became a minister. Cotton Mather , Increase Mather , Magic 583 Words | 2 Pages. Cotton Farming * Cotton is grown all over the world but the biggest cotton -growing nations are . China, India, the United States, Brazil and Pakistan.
After the flowers of the cotton plant have blossomed they fall off and a round green seed pod called a cotton boll remains. The cotton boll ripens in the sun and its cellulose fibers expand until they ripen and burst out of the boll. At this point the cotton plant is ready to be harvested. Cotton Harvesting * Although cotton used to be picked. Boll weevil , Cellulose , Cotton 1001 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Sphinx, a Real World Wonder. The Great Sphinx, a Real World Wonder When one hears of Egypt, they most likely think of the massive pyramids or the . hieroglyphics that told of its history.
While fascinating, they cannot compare to the marvel of the thesis statement paper, Great Sphinx of Egypt. Although it failed to receive the title, the history and beauty of the Sphinx make it worthy of being one of the Seven Wonders of the thesis university of nottingham, Ancient World . Egyptian artwork can be said to fall under two categories; Creation for the purpose of religious or political. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Egyptian race controversy , Ancient history 1463 Words | 4 Pages. ?Payton Brown Week 3 Response to review, The Wonders of the submit, Invisible World The Wonders of the . Invisible World , by Cotton Mather , is one of watsons go to birmingham essay many examples of how the devil has always been involved in the mortal world . He attempts to persecute Christians as well as God’s angels, whom Mather accurately stated, “He has wanted his incarnate legions to persecute us, as the people of God have in the other hemisphere been persecuted” (556). This passage was about thesis how the devil was angered by the new settlers. Cotton Mather , Devil , Earth 849 Words | 3 Pages. ? Part 1 Summary of anne book essay Wonder “My name is thesis university of nottingham August, by the way. I won’t describe what I look like. Whatever you’re . A Beautiful Mind Essay? thinking, it’s probably worse.” Wonder is submit thesis a story about a 5th grade boy named August (Auggie) Pullman who has facial deformity caused by an extremely rare genetic disorder.
He has undergone countless operations, and those made him an outsider with other kids. August has always known that he's different, but he's learned to accept that people will always stare. Bullying , Family , Fifth grade 833 Words | 3 Pages. My eight wonder of the world - INTERNET. My eighth wonder of the world - Internet Internet is one of the most expanding things in the present. And after the other seven . worlds wonders it's my eighth wonder . Birmingham Essay Question? Why? Today it is the fastest way of sending and submit thesis university, receiving a lot of information. Thesis? For example you can buy much things - from computers, cars, books . to simple pizza. You can also communicate with your friends and family from all parts of the world . It isn't a problem to know the latest news about your American cousin. E-mail provides.
ARPANET , Domain Name System , E-mail 801 Words | 3 Pages. The Invisible Man The novel, Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison explores the issue of submit thesis university life, liberty, and the pursuit of a beautiful mind happiness . Submit Thesis? through the main character. In the novel, Invisible Man, the main character is thesis statement paper not giving a name. In our paper we will refer to thesis of nottingham, him as the go to birmingham essay, Protagonist. University? Ellison explores how unalienable rights cannot be obtained without freedom from the obstacles in life especially from one's own fears. In the novel Invisible Man, several major characters affect the Protagonist. One of the. Battle royal , Black people , Character 956 Words | 3 Pages. Wonder Woman: the Iconic American Super-heroine Approximately three billion women exist on our planet. Many of them show strength and wisdom . while simultaneously demonstrating kindness, though some mistake this as weakness. Wonder Woman, superhero and symbolic female liberator, existed simply to contradict the beliefs of the ignorant and to assist in transforming America.
She does more than fight fictional foes; she fights those still clinging to of salvador, antiquated ideas of submit thesis of nottingham female inferiority. When created. Batman , Captain Marvel , DC Comics 2500 Words | 7 Pages. Invisible Man Essay # 1 The book Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison begins with a narrator describing his current living conditions . and his view of himself as an voorbeeld invisible man. It soon becomes apparent that the submit thesis university, book will be a description of this narrator’s life and how he transformed from a young, smart student on his way to college to an invisible man who lives in a basement, stealing electricity. We see in the prologue and first chapter, how the of salvador, narrator transformed from a hopeful young man eager. Invisible Man , Man , Men 1080 Words | 3 Pages.
? WONDERS OF THE WORLD Many lists of wonders of the world are said to have existed during the . Middle Ages, although it is unlikely that these lists originated at that time because the word medieval was not even invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the university, 16th century. Brewer's refers to them as later list[s] suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages. Many of the essay question, structures on submit of nottingham these lists were built much earlier than the. Colossus of Rhodes , Egyptian pyramids , Giza Necropolis 2244 Words | 10 Pages. shirts because I own many of thesis statement them in different colors so I am interested in how they are made.
Polos are composed of 100% cotton . I like to submit thesis, . Introduction? wear these shirts mainly because they are comfortable and look good, but also because they are easy to submit of nottingham, maintain. Cotton is machine washable and can also be dried in a standard dryer, even though they may shrink if over-dried. Cotton is made up of fibrous cellulose, which is a carbohydrate, and the molecular makeup is watsons question a long chain of glucose molecules. Glucose. Atom , Cellulose , Cotton 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Reaction Paper: 7 Wonders of the Industrial World. The movie “7 Wonders of the Industrial World ” by submit thesis university of nottingham, Christopher Spencer is a film full of great artwork and remarkable engineering . from all over the world . From the creation of the ground-breaking Panama Canal which linked the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to the construction of the London sewerage system. These are now celebrated as great wonders of the world - revealing as much about human creativity and the determination of the human spirit as they do of introduction technological efforts. Each of these industrial. Atlantic Ocean , Ferdinand de Lesseps , Great Stink 1031 Words | 3 Pages.
Review of Four of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World. Review of of nottingham Four of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World There have been many lists assembled from ancient times to . Homework? present day noting the spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures in submit, the World . The first known list of a beautiful mind essay introduction remarkable structures is referred to as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . University? Ancient Greek and Roman scholars wrote about these wonders of find architecture beauty. University Of Nottingham? Located around the Mediterranean and statement, Middle East, the seven wonders were: Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging. Alexander the Great , Alexandria , Babylon 2106 Words | 6 Pages. ? The wonders Of . Depo-Provera Abstract Depo-Provera Depo-Provera is a birth control that has been used for many things in the past years. It is mainly used on women as a contraceptive. Submit Thesis University? Depo-Provera is a synthetic derivate of progesterone administered as an acetate salt with anti-estrogenic activity. Thesis Voorbeeld? This is an injected drug. Submit? This medicine/drug.
Birth control , Body mass index , Body weight 2209 Words | 13 Pages. Comparison of the Salem Witch Projects. subject matter. The theme that connects both “Insufficiency of Evidence Against Witches” and “ Wonder of the Invisible . World ” is that both Increase and Cotton Mather were both puritan ministers that participated in the Salem witch trials. In addition, both father and son had different views on how the trials should be handled. The author of thesis statement for analysis paper “Insufficiency of Evidence Against Witches” was Increase Mather . The purpose of writing this document was to argue that there was lack of evidence linking innocent. Cotton Mather , Increase Mather , Magic 1280 Words | 4 Pages. Ana Sharma Block 3 Mr.
Seeley Geography Wonders of the . World Berlin Wall: (Europe) 1. Another name for the Berlin Wall is the “Iron Curtain”. Thesis Of Nottingham? It was built in watsons birmingham essay question, 1961 to keep the university of nottingham, remaining Germans and others in the East side from thesis paper escaping to the West. Thesis? The Eastern side had the USSR government and everyone was being ruled over so to find homework help, get freedom, people tried escaping from the Eastern side because it was dangerous. Everyone. Agra , Mughal architecture , Mughal Empire 618 Words | 2 Pages.
Cotton is King The South's predominant economic principle before the War of Northern Aggression was Cotton is King. The . South, as it was known around the turn of the 19th century, was solely dependent upon its cotton production. Low prices, unmarketable goods, and submit thesis, over-used land were driving the necessity for mind essay introduction slavery and the need for cotton production out. Were it not for a Yankee's ingenuity, the South as we study it now may have been vastly different. As the South lacked the ability. American Civil War , Confederate States of thesis university America , Cotton 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Cotton , like many other plants, has a variety of pests which harm the plant and lower the amount of cotton a farmer . produces. Of Salvador P. Lopez? To combat this issue researchers have genetically modified cotton so that the plant excretes a toxin that is harmful to thesis, many of these pests, like Bollworms.
BT Cotton stands for Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium. This bacterium produces and endotoxin, which is lethal to many of the voorbeeld, pests. This toxin can be very useful because helpful insects are left unharmed. Agriculture , Bacteria , Environmental health 1212 Words | 4 Pages. Michael Baker HIS 131-07 The Cotton Revolution in America: We often view the twentieth century as the era of the most progressive time for . technology, but often what are not often thought of are the astonishing advances of the century prior. The inventions of the thesis, nineteenth century seemed to bring the a beautiful mind, world out university, of the Dark Ages. With all the amazing advances in science and technology, it trumped any time before hand. Between the railroad, the telegraph, electric lighting, the photograph and the.
American Civil War , Confederate States of find America , Cotton gin 1632 Words | 5 Pages. Invisible Disabilities Disabilities come in many different forms and effect individuals in various ways, whether they’re openly apparent to thesis university of nottingham, . Essays Of Salvador? society or not. However, one commonality that all disabled people share, is the submit, negative stereotypes and indignities that society stamps upon them, whether it’s a degraded stare, rude comment, or unequal treatment. In this paper I will focus on the variety of disabled groups that fall into this largely overlooked class of of salvador “ invisible disabilities.” By examining. Disability , Disability etiquette , Educational psychology 971 Words | 3 Pages. words are like a dagger with a jagged edge. ”- “Criminal”, from university of nottingham “The Marshall Mathers LP” An average rap artist wouldn’t be able to grace . the covers of VIBE, Rolling Stone, Entertainment Weekly, and Spin while on a national tour months before their major debut album is released. An average rapper couldn’t say that he’s collaborated with Dr.
Dre, Elton John, and Dido, all in a beautiful introduction, the same year. Then again, Marshall Mathers III, better known as Eminem isn’t your average rapper. Of Nottingham? No other artist has ever. Aftermath Entertainment , Dr. Dre , Eminem 1425 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Invisible Man The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison is a novel that explores racism in the 1930’s through the eyes of the . narrator, a young black man. Essays Of Salvador P. Lopez? The novel describes the story of submit thesis university a young unnamed black man in the 1930’s that is very hopeful for his future, but fails to essay, realize how prominent racism is in the United States.
This naivety soon gets him expelled when he reviles his identity to a white peer. After this disheartening incident occurs the narrator is forced to move to Harlem, New. African American , Discrimination , Miscegenation 1009 Words | 3 Pages. deeper meanings of submit thesis university of nottingham Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man. The prologue is essential, laying down a foundation that allows us to understand the meaning . and reason behind the thesis, symbolism and relevance of submit of nottingham events the homework help, that follow. The prologue allows us to understand the thesis university of nottingham, extent and level of intensity the novel is trying to achieve. Acting in paper, the same way, the thesis university, epilogue further illustrates the importance of different parts of the novel allowing us to truly see what the Invisible Man wants us to notice and take from.
Fiction , Invisibility , Invisible Man 1044 Words | 3 Pages. The Invisible hand is a term created by the renowned economist Adam Smith in his popular book The Wealth of Nations. It means that when . Birmingham Essay Question? individual's pursue their own self-interest they are led by an invisible hand that promotes the society's interest more than what they intended. It is an important property of a competitive market economy. This idea was created in 1776, the same year of the American Declaration of Independence. It wasn't random, because at the same time when people were fighting. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economics 837 Words | 3 Pages. the waking state.
The narrator is invisible because people see in him only what they want to see, not what he really is. Submit Thesis? Invisibility, in find help, . this meaning, has a strong sense of racial prejudice. White people often do not see black people as individual human beings. Another meaning of the theme of submit thesis university invisibility is the idea that it suggests separation from society. Homework? While the narrator is in his hole, he is invisible . He cannot be seen by society. University Of Nottingham? He is invisible because he chooses to voorbeeld, remain apart. Invisibility. Black people , Invisibility , Invisible Man 2071 Words | 6 Pages. The World of Magic Do you believe in submit thesis of nottingham, magic? People including myself often get amazed by the tricks made by the magicians and left . mesmerized and watsons essay question, wondering how that happens even after the end of the show. Is there really magic or are they just merely illusions of the mind?
What is magic? This question has many answers and that magic is not easy to define. Magic is defined by yahoo as the art to control natural events by invoking the supernatural and university of nottingham, a power that is used to introduction, cause evil. Aleister Crowley , Escapology , Magic 2298 Words | 6 Pages. Lucas Tucci Mrs. Callan English 101 April 26th 2010 The Wonder to Success Stevie Wonder did not let his disability stop . Submit Thesis? his success in life. Blind sense infancy, as a result of receiving too much oxygen in the incubator as a premature baby, Stevie showed an early gift for mind essay music.
He overcame many obstacles to still become successful in submit university, his music career. Thesis Paper? He always found a way to preach and guild threw his music and affects the lives around him. Stevie recorded more than thirty top ten hits. Berry Gordy , Marvin Gaye , Motown 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Cotton candy History Cotton candy was first recorded in thesis of nottingham, the 16th century. At that time, spun sugar was an expensive, . labor-intensive endeavor and homework, was not generally available to the average person. Machine-spun cotton candy was invented in 1897 by the dentist William Morrison and confectioner John C. Wharton and first introduced to a wide audience at the 1904 World's Fair as Fairy Floss with great success, selling 68,655 boxes at the then-high price of 25?, half the cost of admission. Candy , Confectionery , Corn syrup 1040 Words | 3 Pages.
The Visible and submit thesis, Invisible Worlds of Salem. The Visible and Invisible Worlds of essays of salvador p. lopez Salem 1. Bewitchment at Salem Village a. Kitchen of Samuel Parris is thesis where began . Thesis? i. Thesis University Of Nottingham? Young girls try crystal ball with help of Tituba ii. One thought saw a specter of voorbeeld coffin b. Samuel find out iii. Witchcraft now like crime 1. Hunt begins c. Three women arrested, include Tituba who confessed iv. If witch confess, then okay v. If not confess then have to look for proof . Cotton Mather , Increase Mather , Magic 481 Words | 2 Pages.
Invisibility in submit thesis university of nottingham, Invisible Man In order to analyze Invisible Man on any level one mush first come to terms with Ellison's . definition of invisible . P. Lopez? To Ellison invisible is not merely a faux representation to submit thesis, the senses; in actuality, it is the embodiment of not being. This simply means that for Ellison, his main character is not just out of sight, but he is completely unperceivable. The assertion that the Negro is anne frank review essay relegated to some sub-section of submit of nottingham society is nothing new; however, never before. Brotherhood , Human , Invisibility 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Mariah Dittmore Quote Analysis 1: The Invisible Man Page 24: He rarely went abroad by daylight, but at twilight he would go out muffled up . invisibly, While I was reading, I was looking for what it would feel like to be invisible . This quote was a little after the invisible man arrived in Iping. He wears bandages on his face, a hat, and a coat, no matter where he is. He never even talks to anyone either. Because of this, people start getting suspicious. I believe the man now sees invisibility.
Idea , Invisibility , Mind 2481 Words | 6 Pages. ? Jamika Roberts Cotton Candy Nostalgia is defined as a sentimental longing or wishful affection for the past, typically for a . period or place with happy personal associations. Thesis Statement? My nostalgia is associated with cotton candy becsuse it draws back memories of when I was a happy child which helps with the relief of stress. Nostalgia relieves common everyday hasles, pressures, strains, and submit thesis, diffculties. Stress can become difficult to essays p. lopez, deal with but I believe this coping mechanisum will help. Disney Channel , Donald Duck , Mickey Mouse 1232 Words | 2 Pages.
Amber Riedy Honors Humanities March 20, 2013 Invisible Man Essay The Illusions of Invisibility and Blindness in . Invisible Man When people think of being blind they think of the physical inhibition; where we are unable to see anything around us because of something that is wrong physically with our eyesight. In Invisible Man, the submit thesis university, reference of blindness refers to the author being unseen but not because of others physical defaults but rather because they are choosing to not see him because. Black people , Blindness , Race 1838 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Pham Tan Vuong ID: S3411932 Lecturer: Antoine Goupille Word count: 1625 INTRODUCTION Adam Smith (1723-1790) was one of the greatest economists . in mind essay introduction, the world with his concept of the “ Invisible Hand”. The “ Invisible Hand” explains the reasons why people do things in the market based on the principles of supply and demand. This theory also creates an economic system called free market or liberal market. Submit Thesis Of Nottingham? This type of a beautiful introduction market has some main features namely, no governmental interventions and. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economic system 1802 Words | 6 Pages. I Wonder By Jeannie Kirby Posted by Bite English / 1:41 PM / Analysis of poem [I Wonder by Jeannie Kirby] Literal . Submit Of Nottingham? meaning A child is homework wondering about the natural happenings, asking why the grass is green (instead of the other colours) and why the wind is invisible . Of Nottingham? He or she continues to homework, ponder the thesis of nottingham, person who teaches the birds to build nest and the trees stop growing.
He or she also wonders when the moon is in a beautiful mind essay introduction, crescent shape, where the other part of the moon is. University? He or she proceeds. Answer , Creator deity , Crescent 688 Words | 3 Pages. particularly high in our interest scale. The article titled “The Sense of Wonder ” by Rachel Carson talks about the unique sense of frank essay . wonder that characterizes newborns and children and thesis university of nottingham, the way that growing old and age counteracts and reduces this special gift. Voorbeeld? Carson details very specific suggestions for parents to promote and submit thesis university of nottingham, therefore establish connections between children and nature.
It is important to start building a sense of for analysis paper wonder at an early age in order to preserve it and at the same time avoid. A Great Way to Care , Child , Debut albums 1714 Words | 5 Pages.